Brussels

Brussels
  • Bruxelles
  • Brussel
Region of Belgium
  • Brussels Capital Region
  • Région de Bruxelles-Capitale
  • Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest
A collage with several views of Brussels, Top: View of the Northern Quarter business district, 2nd left: Floral carpet event in the Grand Place, 2nd right: Brussels City Hall and Mont des Arts area, 3rd: Cinquantenaire Park, 4th left: Manneken Pis, 4th middle: St. Michael and St. Gudula Cathedral, 4th right: Congress Column, Bottom: Royal Palace of Brussels
A collage with several views of Brussels, Top: View of the Northern Quarter business district, 2nd left: Floral carpet event in the Grand Place, 2nd right: Brussels City Hall and Mont des Arts area, 3rd: Cinquantenaire Park, 4th left: Manneken Pis, 4th middle: St. Michael and St. Gudula Cathedral, 4th right: Congress Column, Bottom: Royal Palace of Brussels
Flag of Brussels
Flag
Nickname(s): Capital of Europe,[1] Comic City[2][3]
Brussels is located in Belgium
Brussels
Brussels
Location of Brussels in Belgium
Brussels is located in Europe
Brussels
Brussels
Brussels (Europe)
Coordinates: 50°51′N 4°21′E / 50°51′N 4°21′E / 50.850; 4.350
CountryBelgium
CommunityWallonia French Community
Flanders Flemish Community
Settledc. 580
Founded979
Region18 June 1989
Municipalities
Government
 • ExecutiveGovernment of the Brussels-Capital Region
 • Governing parties (2014–19)PS, FDF, cdH; Open Vld, sp.a, CD&V
 • Minister-PresidentRudi Vervoort (PS)
 • LegislatureParliament of the Brussels-Capital Region
 • SpeakerCharles Picqué (PS)
Area
 • Region/City161.38 km2 (62.2 sq mi)
Elevation13 m (43 ft)
Population (1 January 2017)[4]
 • Region/City1,191,604
 • Density7,384/km2 (16,857/sq mi)
 • Metro2,120,000
Demonym(s)Bruxellois(e) (fr) / BrusselaarBrusselse (nl)
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
ISO 3166BE-BRU
Postal code(s)42 postal codes
Area code(s)02
GDP (nominal)[5]2016
 - Total$95 billion
 - Per capita$80,000
GeoTLD.brussels
Websitebe.brussels

Brussels (French: Bruxelles, [bʁysɛl] (About this sound listen); Dutch: Brussel, [ˈbrʏsəl] (About this sound listen)), officially the Brussels-Capital Region[6][7] (French: Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest),[a] is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the capital of Belgium.[8] The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium[9] and the Flemish Community,[10] but is separate from Flanders (in which it forms an enclave) and Wallonia.[11][12] It covers 161 km2 (62 sq mi), a relatively small area compared to the two other regions, and has a population of 1.2 million. The metropolitan area counts over 2.1 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium.[13][14][15] It is also part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp, Leuven and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people.[16]

Brussels grew from a small rural settlement on the river Senne to become an important city-region in Europe. Since the end of the Second World War, it has been a major centre for international politics and the home of numerous international organisations, politicians, diplomats and civil servants.[17] Brussels is the de facto capital of the European Union, as it hosts a number of principal EU institutions (the two other capitals are Luxembourg and Strasbourg)[18][19][b] and its name is sometimes used metonymically to describe the EU and its institutions.[20][21] The secretariat of the Benelux and headquarters of NATO are also located in Brussels.[22][23] As the economic capital of Belgium and one of the top financial centres of Western Europe with Euronext Brussels, it is classified as an Alpha global city.[24] Brussels is a hub for rail, road and air traffic,[25] sometimes earning it the nickname of “Crossroads of Europe”.[26] Both its airport and railway stations are the largest and busiest in the country.[27][28]

Historically Dutch-speaking, Brussels saw a language shift to French from the late 19th century.[29] Even though French is now the de facto main language with over 90% of the population speaking it,[30] officially Brussels remains bilingual in Dutch and French.[31][32] Brussels is also increasingly becoming multilingual. English is spoken as a second language by nearly a third of the population and a large number of migrants and expatriates speak other languages.[33]

Brussels is known for its cuisine and gastronomy,[34] as well as its historical and architectural landmarks; some of them are registered as UNESCO World Heritage sites.[35] Main attractions include its historic Grand Place, Manneken Pis, Atomium, and cultural institutions such as La Monnaie and the Museums of Art and History. It is also a capital of the comic strip.[2][36]

Toponymy

Etymology

The most common theory of the origin of the name Brussels is that it derives from the Old Dutch Bruocsella, Broekzele or Broeksel, meaning "marsh" (bruoc / broek) and "home" (sella / zele / sel) or "home in the marsh".[37] Saint Vindicianus, the bishop of Cambrai, made the first recorded reference to the place Brosella in 695,[38] when it was still a hamlet. The names of all the municipalities in the Brussels-Capital Region are also of Dutch origin, except for Evere, which is Celtic.

Pronunciation

In French, Bruxelles is pronounced [bʁy.sɛl] (the x is pronounced s/, like in English) and in Dutch, Brussel is pronounced [ˈbry.səl] or [ˈbrɵ.səl]. Inhabitants of Brussels are known in French as Bruxellois and in Dutch as Brusselaars. In the Brabantian dialect of Brussels, they are called Brusseleers or Brusseleirs.

Originally, the written x noted the group s/. In the Belgian French pronunciation as well as in Dutch, the k eventually disappeared and z became s, as reflected in the current Dutch spelling, whereas in the more conservative French form, the spelling remained. The pronunciation s/ in French only dates from the 18th century, but this modification did not affect the traditional Brussels' usage. In France, the pronunciation [bʁyk.sɛl] and [bʁyk.sɛlwa] is often heard, but is rather rare in Belgium.

Other Languages
Acèh: Brussèl
адыгабзэ: Брюссел
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܒܪܘܟܣܠ
تۆرکجه: بروکسل
Bân-lâm-gú: Brussels
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Брусэльскі сталічны рэгіён
български: Брюксел
буряад: Брюссель
dansk: Bruxelles
فارسی: بروکسل
Fiji Hindi: Brussels
Gaeilge: An Bhruiséil
Gaelg: Yn Vrussyl
Gagauz: Brüksel
ગુજરાતી: બ્રસેલ્સ
한국어: 브뤼셀
हिन्दी: ब्रुसेल्स
Ilokano: Bruselas
Bahasa Indonesia: Brussel
interlingua: Brussel
kaszëbsczi: Bruksela
Kiswahili: Brussels
la .lojban.: brusel.
Luganda: Brussels
македонски: Брисел
മലയാളം: ബ്രസൽസ്
مصرى: بروكسيل
مازِرونی: بروکسل
монгол: Брюссель
नेपाल भाषा: ब्रसेल्स
Nordfriisk: Regiuun Brüssel
Norfuk / Pitkern: Brussels
norsk: Brussel
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ବୃସେଲ୍ସ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Brussel Poytaxt Regioni
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬਰੂਸਲ
پښتو: بروکسل
português: Bruxelas
Scots: Brussels
Simple English: Brussels-Capital Region
slovenščina: Bruselj
کوردی: بروکسێل
српски / srpski: Бриселски регион
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Regija glavnoga grada Bruxellesa
suomi: Bryssel
اردو: برسلز
Tiếng Việt: Bruxelles
Winaray: Bruselas
ייִדיש: בריסל ראיאן
Yorùbá: Brussels
Lingua Franca Nova: Bruxelles