Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace
Negara Brunei Darussalam (Rumi)
نڬارا بروني دارالسلام(Jawi)
  • الدائمون المحسنون بالهدى
  • Sentiasa membuat kebajikan dengan petunjuk Allah
  • "Always in service with God's guidance"

Location of  Brunei  (green)in ASEAN  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]
Location of  Brunei  (green)

in ASEAN  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]

and largest city
Bandar Seri Begawan
4°53.417′N 114°56.533′E / 4°53.417′N 114°56.533′E / 4.890283; 114.942217
Official languagesMalay[a]
Recognised languagesEnglish[b]
Other languages
and local dialects[2][3]
Official scripts
Ethnic groups (2016[4])
ReligionSunni Islam
GovernmentUnitary Islamic absolute
Hassanal Bolkiah
Al-Muhtadee Billah
Abdul Rahman Mohamed Taib
Abdul Aziz Juned
LegislatureLegislative Council
15th – 19th century
1 January 1984
7 January 1984
• Total
5,765 km2 (2,226 sq mi) (164th)
• Water (%)
• Jul 2015[5] estimate
417,200[5] (175th)
• Density
72.11/km2 (186.8/sq mi) (134th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$33.376 billion[6] (116th)
• Per capita
$77,699[6] (5th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$13.002 billion[6] (111th)
• Per capita
$27,601[6] (25th)
HDI (2015)Increase 0.865[7]
very high · 31st
CurrencyBrunei dollar (BND)
Time zoneBrunei Darussalam Time (UTC+8)
Drives on theleft
Calling code+673[c]
ISO 3166 codeBN
  1. ^ Under Article 82: "Official language" of the Constitution of Brunei, Malay is the official language.
  2. ^ Under Article 82: "Official language" of the Constitution of Brunei, English is used in official documents (official documents are bilingual; Malay and English).[9]
  3. ^ Also 080 from East Malaysia.

Brunei (/ (About this sound listen), NYE), officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace[10] (Malay: Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi: نڬارا بروني دارالسلام‬), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coastline with the South China Sea, the country is completely surrounded by the Malaysian state of Sarawak. It is separated into two parts by the Sarawak district of Limbang. Brunei is the only sovereign state completely on the island of Borneo; the remainder of the island's territory is divided between the nations of Malaysia and Indonesia. Brunei's population was 423,196 in 2016.[11]

At the peak of the Bruneian Empire, Sultan Bolkiah (reigned 1485–1528) is alleged to have had control over most regions of Borneo, including modern-day Sarawak and Sabah, as well as the Sulu Archipelago off the northeast tip of Borneo, Seludong (modern-day Manila), and the islands off the northwest tip of Borneo. The maritime state was visited by Spain's Magellan Expedition in 1521 and fought against Spain in the 1578 Castilian War.

During the 19th century, the Bruneian Empire began to decline. The Sultanate ceded Sarawak (Kuching) to James Brooke and installed him as the White Rajah, and it ceded Sabah to the British North Borneo Chartered Company. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate and was assigned a British resident as colonial manager in 1906. After the Japanese occupation during World War II, in 1959 a new constitution was written. In 1962, a small armed rebellion against the monarchy was ended with the help of the British.[12]

Brunei gained its independence from the United Kingdom on 1 January 1984. Economic growth during the 1990s and 2000s, with the GDP increasing 56% from 1999 to 2008, transformed Brunei into an industrialised country. It has developed wealth from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields. Brunei has the second-highest Human Development Index among the Southeast Asian nations, after Singapore, and is classified as a "developed country".[13] According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Brunei is ranked fifth in the world by gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity. The IMF estimated in 2011 that Brunei was one of two countries (the other being Libya) with a public debt at 0% of the national GDP. Forbes also ranks Brunei as the fifth-richest nation out of 182, based on its petroleum and natural gas fields.[14]


According to local historiography, Brunei was founded by Awang Alak Betatar, later to be Sultan Muhammad Shah, reigning around AD 1400. He moved from Garang in the Temburong District[15] to the Brunei River estuary, discovering Brunei. According to legend, upon landing he exclaimed, Baru nah (loosely translated as "that's it!" or "there"), from which the name "Brunei" was derived.[16] He was the first Muslim ruler of Brunei.[17] Before the rise of the Bruneian Empire under the Muslim Bolkiah Dynasty, Brunei is believed to have been under Buddhist rulers.[18]

It was renamed "Barunai" in the 14th century, possibly influenced by the Sanskrit word "varuṇ" (वरुण), meaning "seafarers".[19] The word "Borneo" is of the same origin. In the country's full name, Negara Brunei Darussalam, darussalam (Arabic: دار السلام‎) means "abode of peace", while negara means "country" in Malay.

The earliest recorded documentation by the West about Brunei is by an Italian known as Ludovico di Varthema, who also said the "Bruneian people have fairer skin tone than the peoples he met in Maluku Islands". On his documentation back to 1550;

We arrived at the island of Bornei (Brunei or Borneo), which is distant from the Maluch about two hundred miles, and we found that it was somewhat larger than the aforesaid and much lower. The people are pagans and are men of goodwill. Their colour is whiter than that of the other sort ... in this island justice is well administered ...[20]

Other Languages
Acèh: Brunai
адыгабзэ: Бруней
Afrikaans: Broenei
Alemannisch: Brunei
አማርኛ: ብሩናይ
Ænglisc: Brunei
العربية: بروناي
aragonés: Brunei
arpetan: Bruneyi
অসমীয়া: ব্ৰুণেই
asturianu: Brunéi
Avañe'ẽ: Mburunéi
azərbaycanca: Bruney
تۆرکجه: برونئی
বাংলা: ব্রুনাই
Bahasa Banjar: Brunai
Bân-lâm-gú: Brunei
Basa Banyumasan: Brunei
башҡортса: Бруней
беларуская: Бруней
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Брунэй
भोजपुरी: ब्रुनेई
Bikol Central: Brunei
български: Бруней
Boarisch: Brunei
བོད་ཡིག: བྷི་རུ་ནི།
bosanski: Brunej
brezhoneg: Brunei
буряад: Брүнэй
català: Brunei
Чӑвашла: Бруней
Cebuano: Brunei
čeština: Brunej
Chi-Chewa: Brunei
chiShona: Brunei
chiTumbuka: Brunei
Cymraeg: Brunei
dansk: Brunei
davvisámegiella: Brunei
Deutsch: Brunei
ދިވެހިބަސް: ބުރުނައީ
dolnoserbski: Brunei
eesti: Brunei
Ελληνικά: Μπρουνέι
español: Brunéi
Esperanto: Brunejo
euskara: Brunei
فارسی: برونئی
Fiji Hindi: Brunei
føroyskt: Brunei
français: Brunei
Frysk: Brûnei
Gaeilge: Brúiné
Gaelg: Brunei
Gagauz: Bruney
Gàidhlig: Brùnaigh
galego: Brunei
Gĩkũyũ: Brunei
ગુજરાતી: બ્રુનેઈ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: ब्रुनेई
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Vùn-lòi
한국어: 브루나이
Hausa: Brunei
Hawaiʻi: Brunei
Հայերեն: Բրունեյ
हिन्दी: ब्रुनेई
hornjoserbsce: Brunei
hrvatski: Brunej
Ido: Brunei
Ilokano: Brunei
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ব্রুনাই
Bahasa Indonesia: Brunei Darussalam
interlingua: Brunei
Interlingue: Brunei
Iñupiak: Brunei
Ирон: Бруней
íslenska: Brúnei
italiano: Brunei
עברית: ברוניי
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಬ್ರುನೈ
Kapampangan: Brunei
ქართული: ბრუნეი
kaszëbsczi: Brunei
қазақша: Бруней
kernowek: Bruney
Kinyarwanda: Buruneyi
Kiswahili: Brunei
коми: Бруней
Kongo: Brunei
Kreyòl ayisyen: Brouney
kurdî: Brûney
Кыргызча: Бруней
لۊری شومالی: بورونئیی
Latina: Bruneium
latviešu: Bruneja
Lëtzebuergesch: Brunei
lietuvių: Brunėjus
Ligure: Brunei
Limburgs: Brunei
lingála: Brunei
Livvinkarjala: Brunei
lumbaart: Brunei
magyar: Brunei
मैथिली: ब्रुनेई
македонски: Брунеј
Malagasy: Boroney
മലയാളം: ബ്രൂണൈ
Malti: Brunej
Māori: Poronai
मराठी: ब्रुनेई
მარგალური: ბრუნეი
مصرى: بروناى
مازِرونی: برونئی
Bahasa Melayu: Brunei
Baso Minangkabau: Brunei
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ùng-lài
Mirandés: Brunei
монгол: Бруней
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဘရူနိုင်းနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Brunei
Dorerin Naoero: Brunei
Nederlands: Brunei
नेपाली: ब्रुनेई
नेपाल भाषा: ब्रुनाइ
日本語: ブルネイ
Napulitano: Brunei
нохчийн: Бруней
Nordfriisk: Bruunei
Norfuk / Pitkern: Bruunii
norsk: Brunei
norsk nynorsk: Brunei
Novial: Brunei
occitan: Brunei
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ବୃନେଇ
Oromoo: Birunaay
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Bruney
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬਰੂਨਾਈ
पालि: ब्रूनै
پنجابی: برونائی
Papiamentu: Brunei
پښتو: برونای
Patois: Brunai
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ប៊្រុយណេ
Picard: Brunei
Piemontèis: Brunei
Tok Pisin: Brunai
Plattdüütsch: Brunei
polski: Brunei
português: Brunei
Qaraqalpaqsha: Bruney
qırımtatarca: Bruney
Ripoarisch: Brunei
română: Brunei
rumantsch: Brunei
Runa Simi: Bruniy
русиньскый: Бруней
русский: Бруней
саха тыла: Бруней
संस्कृतम्: ब्रूनै
Sängö: Brunêi
Scots: Brunei
Seeltersk: Brunei
shqip: Brunei
sicilianu: Brunei
සිංහල: බෲනායි
Simple English: Brunei
سنڌي: برونئي
SiSwati: IBhruneyi
slovenčina: Brunej
slovenščina: Brunej
ślůnski: Brunei
Soomaaliga: Barunay
کوردی: بروونای
српски / srpski: Брунеј
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Brunej
Basa Sunda: Brunéi
suomi: Brunei
svenska: Brunei
Tagalog: Brunei
தமிழ்: புரூணை
Taqbaylit: Brunei
татарча/tatarça: Бруней
తెలుగు: బ్రూనై
tetun: Brunei
тоҷикӣ: Бруней
Türkçe: Brunei
Türkmençe: Bruneý
удмурт: Бруней
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Brunei
українська: Бруней
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: برۇنېي
Vahcuengh: Vwnzlaiz
vèneto: Brunei
vepsän kel’: Brunei
Tiếng Việt: Brunei
Volapük: Brunän
文言: 汶萊
Winaray: Brunei
吴语: 文莱
ייִדיש: ברוניי
Yorùbá: Brunei
粵語: 汶萊
Zazaki: Bruney
Zeêuws: Brunei
žemaitėška: Bruniejos
中文: 汶莱
डोटेली: ब्रुनाई
Lingua Franca Nova: Brune