British Isles

  • british isles
    a map of the british isles and their location in europe.
    satellite image, excluding shetland and the channel islands (out of frame)
    british isles (orthographic projection).svg
    geography
    locationnorth-western europe
    coordinates54°n 4°w / 54°n 4°w / 54; -4
    • western european summer time[a] (utc+1)
    drives on theleft
    1. ^ irish standard time in the republic of ireland, british summer time in the united kingdom and associated territories.

    the british isles are a group of islands in the north atlantic off the north-western coast of continental europe, consisting of the islands of great britain, ireland, the isle of man, the hebrides and over six thousand smaller isles.[8] they have a total area of about 315,159 km2 (121,684 sq mi)[5] and a combined population of almost 72 million, and include two sovereign states, the republic of ireland (which covers roughly five-sixths of ireland),[9] and the united kingdom of great britain and northern ireland. the islands of alderney, jersey, guernsey, and sark, and their neighbouring smaller islands, are sometimes also taken to be part of the british isles,[10] even though, as islands off the coast of france, they do not form part of the archipelago.[11]

    the oldest rocks in the group are in the north west of scotland, ireland, and north wales and are 2.7 billion years old.[12] during the silurian period, the north-western regions collided with the south-east, which had been part of a separate continental landmass. the topography of the islands is modest in scale by global standards. ben nevis rises to an elevation of only 1,345 metres (4,413 ft),[6] and lough neagh, which is notably larger than other lakes in the island group, covers 390 square kilometres (151 sq mi). the climate is temperate marine, with cool winters and warm summers. the north atlantic drift brings significant moisture and raises temperatures 11 °c (20 °f) above the global average for the latitude. this led to a landscape which was long dominated by temperate rainforest, although human activity has since cleared the vast majority of forest cover. the region was re-inhabited after the last glacial period of quaternary glaciation, by 12,000 bc, when great britain was still part of a peninsula of the european continent. ireland, which became an island by 12,000 bc, was not inhabited until after 8000 bc.[13] great britain became an island by 5600 bc.

    hiberni (ireland), pictish (northern britain) and britons (southern britain) tribes, all speaking insular celtic,[14] inhabited the islands at the beginning of the 1st millennium ad. much of brittonic-occupied britain was conquered by the roman empire from ad 43. the first anglo-saxons arrived as roman power waned in the 5th century, and eventually dominated the bulk of what is now england.[15] viking invasions began in the 9th century, followed by more permanent settlements and political change, particularly in england. the norman conquest of england in 1066 and the later angevin partial conquest of ireland from 1169 led to the imposition of a new norman ruling elite across much of britain and parts of ireland. by the late middle ages, great britain was separated into the kingdom of england and kingdom of scotland, while control in ireland fluxed between gaelic kingdoms, hiberno-norman lords and the english-dominated lordship of ireland, soon restricted only to the pale. the 1603 union of the crowns, acts of union 1707 and acts of union 1800 aimed to consolidate britain and ireland into a single political unit, the united kingdom of great britain and ireland, with the isle of man and the channel islands remaining as crown dependencies. the expansion of the british empire and migrations following the irish famine and highland clearances resulted in the dispersal of some of the islands' population and culture throughout the world, and a rapid depopulation of ireland in the second half of the 19th century. most of ireland seceded from the united kingdom after the irish war of independence and the subsequent anglo-irish treaty (1919–1922), with six counties remaining in the uk as northern ireland.

    the term "british isles" is controversial in ireland,[8][16] where there are nationalist objections to its usage.[17] the government of ireland does not officially recognise the term,[18] and its embassy in london discourages its use.[19] britain and ireland is used as an alternative description,[17][20][21] and atlantic archipelago has also seen limited use in academia.[22][23][24][25]

  • etymology
  • geography
  • flora and fauna
  • demographics
  • history
  • politics
  • culture
  • transport
  • see also
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

British Isles
A map of the British Isles and their location in Europe.
Satellite image, excluding Shetland and the Channel Islands (out of frame)
British Isles (orthographic projection).svg
Geography
LocationNorth-western Europe
Coordinates54°N 4°W / 54°N 4°W / 54; -4
Drives on theleft
  1. ^ Irish Standard Time in the Republic of Ireland, British Summer Time in the United Kingdom and associated territories.

The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe, consisting of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man, the Hebrides and over six thousand smaller isles.[8] They have a total area of about 315,159 km2 (121,684 sq mi)[5] and a combined population of almost 72 million, and include two sovereign states, the Republic of Ireland (which covers roughly five-sixths of Ireland),[9] and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The islands of Alderney, Jersey, Guernsey, and Sark, and their neighbouring smaller islands, are sometimes also taken to be part of the British Isles,[10] even though, as islands off the coast of France, they do not form part of the archipelago.[11]

The oldest rocks in the group are in the north west of Scotland, Ireland, and North Wales and are 2.7 billion years old.[12] During the Silurian period, the north-western regions collided with the south-east, which had been part of a separate continental landmass. The topography of the islands is modest in scale by global standards. Ben Nevis rises to an elevation of only 1,345 metres (4,413 ft),[6] and Lough Neagh, which is notably larger than other lakes in the island group, covers 390 square kilometres (151 sq mi). The climate is temperate marine, with cool winters and warm summers. The North Atlantic drift brings significant moisture and raises temperatures 11 °C (20 °F) above the global average for the latitude. This led to a landscape which was long dominated by temperate rainforest, although human activity has since cleared the vast majority of forest cover. The region was re-inhabited after the last glacial period of Quaternary glaciation, by 12,000 BC, when Great Britain was still part of a peninsula of the European continent. Ireland, which became an island by 12,000 BC, was not inhabited until after 8000 BC.[13] Great Britain became an island by 5600 BC.

Hiberni (Ireland), Pictish (northern Britain) and Britons (southern Britain) tribes, all speaking Insular Celtic,[14] inhabited the islands at the beginning of the 1st millennium AD. Much of Brittonic-occupied Britain was conquered by the Roman Empire from AD 43. The first Anglo-Saxons arrived as Roman power waned in the 5th century, and eventually dominated the bulk of what is now England.[15] Viking invasions began in the 9th century, followed by more permanent settlements and political change, particularly in England. The Norman conquest of England in 1066 and the later Angevin partial conquest of Ireland from 1169 led to the imposition of a new Norman ruling elite across much of Britain and parts of Ireland. By the Late Middle Ages, Great Britain was separated into the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland, while control in Ireland fluxed between Gaelic kingdoms, Hiberno-Norman lords and the English-dominated Lordship of Ireland, soon restricted only to The Pale. The 1603 Union of the Crowns, Acts of Union 1707 and Acts of Union 1800 aimed to consolidate Britain and Ireland into a single political unit, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands remaining as Crown Dependencies. The expansion of the British Empire and migrations following the Irish Famine and Highland Clearances resulted in the dispersal of some of the islands' population and culture throughout the world, and a rapid depopulation of Ireland in the second half of the 19th century. Most of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom after the Irish War of Independence and the subsequent Anglo-Irish Treaty (1919–1922), with six counties remaining in the UK as Northern Ireland.

The term "British Isles" is controversial in Ireland,[8][16] where there are nationalist objections to its usage.[17] The Government of Ireland does not officially recognise the term,[18] and its embassy in London discourages its use.[19] Britain and Ireland is used as an alternative description,[17][20][21] and Atlantic Archipelago has also seen limited use in academia.[22][23][24][25]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Britse Eilande
Alemannisch: Britische Inseln
aragonés: Islas britanicas
azərbaycanca: Britaniya adaları
Bân-lâm-gú: Tāi-eng Kûn-tó
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Брытанскія астравы
Cebuano: British Isles
čeština: Britské ostrovy
Esperanto: Britaj Insuloj
한국어: 브리튼 제도
hornjoserbsce: Britiske kupy
hrvatski: Britanski otoci
Bahasa Indonesia: Kepulauan Britania
interlingua: Insulas Britannic
íslenska: Bretlandseyjar
kernowek: Enesow Keltek
latviešu: Britu salas
Lëtzebuergesch: Brittesch Inselen
lietuvių: Britų salos
lumbaart: Isole Britanege
македонски: Британски острови
Bahasa Melayu: Kepulauan British
Nederlands: Britse Eilanden
Nordfriisk: Britisk eilunen
norsk nynorsk: Dei britiske øyane
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Britaniya orollari
Piemontèis: Ìsole britàniche
português: Ilhas Britânicas
romani čhib: Britanikane dvipa
Simple English: British Isles
slovenčina: Britské ostrovy
slovenščina: Britansko otočje
српски / srpski: Британска острва
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Britanski otoci
татарча/tatarça: Британия утраулары
Tiếng Việt: Quần đảo Anh