Brazilian National Anthem
|English: Brazilian National Anthem|
National anthem of
|Adopted||1831 during the |
20 January 1890 (re-adopted)
6 September 1922 (lyrics adopted)
"Hino Nacional Brasileiro" (instrumental)
Recording by the Coral BDMG and Orquestra Sinfônica da Polícia Militar do Estado de Minas Gerais
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The melody of the Brazilian national anthem was composed by Francisco Manuel da Silva, and was presented to the public for the first time in April 1831. On 7 April 1831, the first Brazilian Emperor,
From the proclamation of the independence of Brazil in 1822 until the 1831 abdication, an anthem that had been composed by Pedro I himself, celebrating the country's independence (and that now continues to be an official patriotic song, the
Francisco Manuel da Silva then seized this opportunity to present his composition, and the anthem written by him was played in public for the first time on April 13, 1831. On that same day, the ship carrying the former Emperor left the port of Rio de Janeiro. The date of April 13 now appears in official calendars as the Day of the Brazilian National Anthem.
As to the actual date of composition of the music presented in April 1831, there is controversy among historians. Some hold that Francisco Manuel da Silva composed the music in the last four months of 1822 to commemorate Brazil's independence (declared on 7 September 1822), others hold that the hymn was written in early 1823 and others consider the evidence of composition dating back to 1822 or 1823 unreliable, and hold that the Anthem presented on 13 April 1831 was written in 1831, and not before. In any event, the Anthem remained in obscurity until it was played in public on 13 April 1831. In style, the music resembles early
Initially, the music composed by Francisco Manuel da Silva was given lyrics by Appeals Judge Ovídio Saraiva de Carvalho e Silva not as a national anthem, but as a hymn commemorating the abdication of Pedro I and the accession of Pedro II to the Throne. It was known during this early period as "April 7 Hymn". The lyrics by Ovídio Saraiva soon fell out of use, given that they were considered poor, and even offensive towards the Portuguese. The music, however, continued enjoying sustained popularity, and by 1837 it was played, without lyrics, in all public ceremonies.
Although no statute was passed during the imperial period to declare Francisco Manuel da Silva's musical composition as the national anthem, no formal enactment was considered necessary for the adoption of a national anthem. A national anthem was seen as resulting from praxis or tradition. Thus, by 1837, when it was played in all official solemnities, Francisco Manuel da Silva's composition was already the Brazilian National Anthem.
A new set of lyrics was proposed in 1841, to commemorate the coming of age and Coronation of Emperor Pedro II; those lyrics, popular but also considered poor, were soon abandoned too, this time by order of Emperor Pedro II, who specified that in public ceremonies the anthem should be played with no lyrics. Emperor Pedro II directed that Francisco Manuel da Silva's composition, as the national anthem of the
After the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889, the new rulers made a competition in order to choose a new anthem, and the competition was won by a music composed by
In the early days of the new Federal Republic, the National Anthem continued without official lyrics, but several lyrics were proposed, and some were even adopted by different states of Brazil. The lack of uniform, official lyrics would only be terminated in 1922, during the celebrations of the first centennial of the Proclamation of Independence, when an adapted version of Joaquim Osório Duque Estrada's lyrics, first proposed in 1909, were deemed official.
The official lyrics of the Brazilian National Anthem were proclaimed by decree of President Epitácio Pessoa (Decree 15.761 of 1922), issued on 6 September 1922, at the height of the celebrations of the Independence Centennial. This presidential decree was issued in accordance with authorization contained in a legislative decree adopted by Congress on 21 August 1922. Furthermore, as allowed by the said legislative decree, and before the President of the Republic issued his decree proclaiming the official adoption of Joaquim Osório Duque Estrada's lyrics as the official lyrics of the National anthem, the Federal Government finalized the purchase of the lyrics written by Duque Estrada, signing with the composer the contract that transferred all the rights of authorship over the said lyrics to the Federal Union, and paying the agreed price of 5:000$ (five contos of réis).
On 7 September 1922, on the exact day of the Independence Centennial, radio broadcasts began in Brazil, and the first broadcast was the performance of the National Anthem with the new lyrics, followed by the speech by President Epitácio Pessoa, the first radio address by a Brazilian President.
The national anthem is considered by the current Constitution of Brazil, adopted in 1988, to be one of the four national symbols of the country, along with the Flag, the Coat of Arms and the National Seal. The legal norms currently in force concerning the national anthem are contained in a statute passed in 1971 (Law 5.700 of 1 September 1971), regulating the national symbols. This law regulates in great detail the form of the national anthem and how and when it is to be played.
The music of the national anthem was originally intended to be played by symphonic orchestras; for the playing of the anthem by bands, the march composed by Antão Fernandes is included in the instrumentation. This adaptation, long in use, was made official by the 1971 statute regulating national symbols. This same statute also confirmed as official the traditional vocal adaptation of the lyrics of the national anthem, in F major, composed by Alberto Nepomuceno.
Due to the fact that the traditional vocal adaptation composed by Alberto Nepomuceno for Joaquim Osorio Duque Estrada's lyrics of the national anthem was made official in 1971, other vocal arrangements (as well as other instrumental arrangements departing from the one recognized in law) are unofficial. Because of that, for the remainder of the Military Regime era (that lasted until 1985), the playing of the anthem with any artistic arrangement that departed from the official orchestration and vocal adaptation was prohibited, and there was strict vigilance regarding the use of the National Symbols and the enforcement of this norm. Since the redemocratization of the country, far greater artistic liberty has been allowed regarding renderings of the national anthem. Singer
The anthem is sung in Brazil's official national language, the Portuguese language.