officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil,
), is the largest country in both
South America and
Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles)
 and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's
fifth-largest country by area and the
sixth most populous. The capital is
the most populated city is
São Paulo. It is the largest country to have
Portuguese as an
official language and the only one in the
 Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a
coastline of 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi).
 It borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area.
Amazon River basin includes a
vast tropical forest, home to diverse
wildlife, a variety of
ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous
 This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17
megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by
numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer
Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the
Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a
Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was
transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the
United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the
Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the
National Congress. The country
became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military
coup d'état. An authoritarian
military junta came to power
in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current
constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a
 The federation is composed of the union of the
Federal District, the 26
states, and the 5,570
Brazil's economy is the world's eighth-
largest by both nominal GDP and
GDP (PPP) as of 2017 .
 A member of the
BRICS group, Brazil until 2010 had one of the world's fastest growing major economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition and influence.
national development bank plays an important role for the country's economic growth.
 Brazil is a founding member of the
United Nations, the
Union of South American Nations,
Organization of American States,
Organization of Ibero-American States and the
. Brazil is a
regional power in Latin America and a
middle power in international affairs,
 with some analysts identifying it as an
emerging global power. It has been characterised as a
 One of the world's major
breadbaskets, Brazil has also been the largest
producer of coffee for the last 150 years.