Brazil

Federative Republic of Brazil
República Federativa do Brasil  (Portuguese)
Motto: 
  • Ordem e Progresso  (Portuguese)
  • (English: "Order and Progress")
Anthem: 

Location of  Brazil  (dark green)in South America  (grey)
Location of  Brazil  (dark green)

in South America  (grey)

CapitalBrasília
15°47′S 47°52′W / 15°47′S 47°52′W / -15.783; -47.867
Largest citySão Paulo
23°33′S 46°38′W / 23°33′S 46°38′W / -23.550; -46.633
Official language
and national language
Portuguese[2]
Ethnic groups (2010[3])
Religion
DemonymBrazilian
GovernmentFederal presidential constitutional republic
Michel Temer
Vacant[5]
Rodrigo Maia
Eunício Oliveira
Cármen Lúcia
LegislatureNational Congress
Federal Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Independence from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
7 September 1822
29 August 1825
15 November 1889
11 November 1903
5 October 1988
Area
• Total
8,515,767 km2 (3,287,956 sq mi) (5th)
• Water (%)
0.65
Population
• 2018 estimate
209,129,000[6] (6th)
• Density
25/km2 (64.7/sq mi) (199th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$3.389 trillion[7] (8th)
• Per capita
$16,199[7] (81th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$2.139 trillion[7] (9th)
• Per capita
$10,224[7] (65th)
Gini (2015)Positive decrease 51.3[8]
high
HDI (2015)Steady 0.754[9]
high · 79th
CurrencyReal (R$) (BRL)
Time zoneBRT (UTC−2 to −5)
• Summer (DST)
BRST (UTC−2 to −5)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Drives on theright
Calling code+55
ISO 3166 codeBR
Internet TLD.br

Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil [bɾaˈziw]),[nt 1] officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil, About this sound listen ),[10] is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles)[11] and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the sixth most populous. The capital is Brasília, and the most populated city is São Paulo. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas,[12][13] besides being one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to the strong immigration from various places in the world. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi).[14] It borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area.[15] Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats.[14] This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.

Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic.[16] The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, and the 5,570 municipalities.

Brazil's economy is the world's eighth-largest by both nominal GDP and GDP (PPP) as of 2017.[17][18] A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until 2010 had one of the world's fastest growing major economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition and influence.[19] Brazil's national development bank plays an important role for the country's economic growth.[20] Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the CPLP. Brazil is a regional power in Latin American and a middle power[21] on international affairs with potential superpower status.[22] One of the world's major breadbaskets, Brazil has also been the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years.[23]

Etymology

It is likely that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.[24] In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from Latin brasa ("ember") and the suffix -il (from -iculum or -ilium).[25] As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was highly valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil.[26] Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples (mostly Tupi) along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders (mostly Portuguese, but also French) in return for assorted European consumer goods.[27]

The official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross" (Terra da Santa Cruz),[28] but European sailors and merchants commonly called it simply the "Land of Brazil" (Terra do Brasil) because of the brazilwood trade.[29] The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name. Some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots".[30]

In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama". This was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".[31]

Other Languages
Acèh: Brasil
Адыгэбзэ: Бразилэ
адыгабзэ: Бразилие
Afrikaans: Brasilië
Akan: Brazil
Alemannisch: Brasilien
አማርኛ: ብራዚል
Ænglisc: Brasil
العربية: البرازيل
aragonés: Brasil
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܒܪܐܙܝܠ
arpetan: Brèsil
অসমীয়া: ব্ৰাজিল
asturianu: Brasil
Avañe'ẽ: Pindoráma
Aymar aru: Wrasil
azərbaycanca: Braziliya
تۆرکجه: برزیل
bamanankan: Brazil
বাংলা: ব্রাজিল
Bân-lâm-gú: Pa-se
Basa Banyumasan: Brasil
башҡортса: Бразилия
беларуская: Бразілія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Бразылія
भोजपुरी: ब्राज़ील
Bikol Central: Brasil
Bislama: Brazil
български: Бразилия
Boarisch: Brasilien
བོད་ཡིག: པུ་རུ་ཟིལ།
bosanski: Brazil
brezhoneg: Brazil
буряад: Бразил
català: Brasil
Чӑвашла: Бразили
Cebuano: Brasil
čeština: Brazílie
Chamoru: Brazil
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Brasil
chiShona: Brazil
chiTumbuka: Brazil
corsu: Brasile
Cymraeg: Brasil
dansk: Brasilien
davvisámegiella: Brasilia
Deitsch: Brasilien
Deutsch: Brasilien
ދިވެހިބަސް: ބުރެޒިލް
dolnoserbski: Brazilska
eesti: Brasiilia
Ελληνικά: Βραζιλία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Braṡil
español: Brasil
Esperanto: Brazilo
estremeñu: Brasil
euskara: Brasil
eʋegbe: Brazil
فارسی: برزیل
Fiji Hindi: Brazil
føroyskt: Brasil
français: Brésil
Frysk: Brazylje
Fulfulde: Barazil
furlan: Brasîl
Gaeilge: An Bhrasaíl
Gagauz: Braziliya
Gàidhlig: Braisil
galego: Brasil
贛語: 巴西
Gĩkũyũ: Brazil
گیلکی: برزيل
ગુજરાતી: બ્રાઝિલ
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌱𐍂𐌰𐌶𐌹𐌻
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: ब्राझील
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Pâ-sî
한국어: 브라질
Hausa: Brazil
Hawaiʻi: Palakila
Հայերեն: Բրազիլիա
हिन्दी: ब्राज़ील
hornjoserbsce: Brazilska
hrvatski: Brazil
Igbo: Brazil
Ilokano: Brasil
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ব্রাজিল
Bahasa Indonesia: Brasil
interlingua: Brasil
Interlingue: Brasil
Ирон: Бразили
isiXhosa: Brasil
isiZulu: IBrazili
íslenska: Brasilía
italiano: Brasile
עברית: ברזיל
Basa Jawa: Brasil
kalaallisut: Brazil
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಬ್ರೆಜಿಲ್
Kapampangan: Brasil
къарачай-малкъар: Бразилия
ქართული: ბრაზილია
kaszëbsczi: Brazylskô
қазақша: Бразилия
kernowek: Brasil
Kinyarwanda: Burezile
Kirundi: Brazil
Kiswahili: Brazil
Kongo: Brazilia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Brezil
kurdî: Brazîl
Кыргызча: Бразилия
кырык мары: Бразили
Ladino: Brasil
лезги: Бразилия
لۊری شومالی: برزيل
latgaļu: Brazileja
Latina: Brasilia
latviešu: Brazīlija
Lëtzebuergesch: Brasilien
lietuvių: Brazilija
Ligure: Braxî
Limburgs: Brazilië
lingála: Brazil
Livvinkarjala: Braziilii
la .lojban.: razgu'e
lumbaart: Brasil
magyar: Brazília
मैथिली: ब्राजिल
македонски: Бразил
Malagasy: Brazila
മലയാളം: ബ്രസീൽ
Malti: Brażil
Māori: Parīhi
मराठी: ब्राझील
მარგალური: ბრაზილია
مصرى: برازيل
مازِرونی: برزیل
Bahasa Melayu: Brazil
Baso Minangkabau: Brasil
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Bă-să̤
Mirandés: Brasil
мокшень: Бразилие
монгол: Бразил
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဘရာဇီးနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Brasil
Dorerin Naoero: Bradir
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Brazil
Nederlands: Brazilië
Nedersaksies: Brazilië
नेपाली: ब्राजिल
नेपाल भाषा: ब्राजिल
日本語: ブラジル
Napulitano: Brasile
нохчийн: Бразили
Nordfriisk: Brasiilien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Bresel
norsk: Brasil
norsk nynorsk: Brasil
Nouormand: Brési
Novial: Brasilia
occitan: Brasil
олык марий: Бразилий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ବ୍ରାଜିଲ
Oromoo: Biraazil
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Braziliya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬ੍ਰਾਜ਼ੀਲ
पालि: ब्रासील
Pälzisch: Brasilje
Pangasinan: Brazil
پنجابی: برازیل
Papiamentu: Brazil
پښتو: برازیل
Patois: Brazil
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ប្រេស៊ីល
Picard: Brésil
Piemontèis: Brasil
Tok Pisin: Brasil
Plattdüütsch: Brasilien
polski: Brazylia
português: Brasil
Qaraqalpaqsha: Braziliya
qırımtatarca: Brazil
reo tahiti: Parīihi
română: Brazilia
Romani: Brazil
rumantsch: Brasilia
Runa Simi: Prasil
русиньскый: Бразілія
русский: Бразилия
саха тыла: Бразилия
Gagana Samoa: Pasila
संस्कृतम्: ब्रासील
sardu: Brasile
Scots: Brazil
Seeltersk: Brasilien
Sesotho: Brazil
Sesotho sa Leboa: Brazil
shqip: Brazili
sicilianu: Brasili
සිංහල: බ්‍රසීලය
Simple English: Brazil
سنڌي: برازيل
slovenčina: Brazília
slovenščina: Brazilija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Браꙁїлїꙗ
ślůnski: Brazylijo
Soomaaliga: Barasiil
کوردی: بەڕازیل
Sranantongo: Brasilkondre
српски / srpski: Бразил
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Brazil
Basa Sunda: Brasil
suomi: Brasilia
svenska: Brasilien
Tagalog: Brazil
தமிழ்: பிரேசில்
Taqbaylit: Brazil
tarandíne: Brasile
татарча/tatarça: Бразилия
తెలుగు: బ్రెజిల్
tetun: Brazíl
ትግርኛ: ብራዚል
тоҷикӣ: Бразилия
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏆᏏᎵ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Brazil
Tshivenda: Brazil
Türkçe: Brezilya
Türkmençe: Braziliýa
Twi: Brazil
тыва дыл: Бразилия
українська: Бразилія
اردو: برازیل
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: برازىلىيە
Vahcuengh: Bahsih
vèneto: Braxil
vepsän kel’: Brazilii
Tiếng Việt: Brasil
Volapük: Brasilän
Võro: Brasiilia
walon: Braezi
文言: 巴西
West-Vlams: Brazilië
Winaray: Brasil
Wolof: Breesil
吴语: 巴西
ייִדיש: בראזיל
Yorùbá: Brasil
粵語: 巴西
Zazaki: Brezilya
Zeêuws: Brezilië
žemaitėška: Brazilėjė
中文: 巴西
डोटेली: ब्राजिल
ГӀалгӀай: Бразили
Kabɩyɛ: Piresiili
Lingua Franca Nova: Brasil