Boston

Boston, Massachusetts
City
City of Boston
Boston Financial District
Fenway Park
Massachusetts State House
Back Bay and the Charles River
Flag of Boston, Massachusetts
Flag
Official seal of Boston, Massachusetts
Seal
Nickname(s): See Boston nicknames
Motto(s): Sicut patribus sit Deus nobis (Latin)
"As God was with our fathers, so may He be with us"
Location within Suffolk County Interactive map of Boston
Location within Suffolk County
Interactive map of Boston
Boston is located in Massachusetts
Boston
Boston
Location within Massachusetts
Boston is located in the US
Boston
Boston
Location within United States
Boston is located in North America
Boston
Boston
Location within North America
Boston is located in Earth
Boston
Boston
Location on Earth
Coordinates: 42°21′29″N 71°03′49″W / 42°21′29″N 71°03′49″W / 42.35806; -71.06361
Country United States
State Massachusetts
CountySeal of Suffolk County, Massachusetts.png Suffolk
Historic countries England
 Great Britain
Historic coloniesMassachusetts Bay Colony in the Province of Massachusetts Bay
Settled (town)
September 7, 1630
(date of naming, Old Style)[a]
Incorporated (city)March 4, 1822
Named forBoston, Lincolnshire
Government
 • TypeStrong mayor / Council
 • MayorMarty Walsh (D)
 • CouncilBoston City Council
Area
 • City89.63 sq mi (232.14 km2)
 • Land48.42 sq mi (125.41 km2)
 • Water41.21 sq mi (106.73 km2)
 • Urban1,770 sq mi (4,600 km2)
 • Metro4,500 sq mi (11,700 km2)
 • CSA10,600 sq mi (27,600 km2)
Elevation141 ft (43 m)
Population (2010)[2][3][4][5][6]
 • City617,594
 • Estimate (2017)[3]685,094
 • Rank21st, U.S. as of 2017 incorporated places estimate
 • Density14,149/sq mi (5,463/km2)
 • Urban4,180,000 (US: 10th)
 • Metro4,628,910 (US: 10th)[1]
 • CSA8,041,303 (US: 6th)
 • DemonymBostonian
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
Area codes617 and 857
FIPS code25-07000
GNIS feature ID0617565
Primary AirportLogan International Airport
Secondary AirportWorcester Regional Airport
InterstatesI-90.svg I-93.svg I-95.svg I-495.svg
Commuter RailMBTA Commuter Rail
Rapid TransitMBTA Subway
WebsiteBoston.gov

Boston is the capital and most populous municipality[8] of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles (124 km2) with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017,[3] making it also the most populous city in the New England region.[2] Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999.[9] The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country.[10] As a combined statistical area (CSA), this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States.[11]

Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England.[12][13] It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston. Upon U.S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture.[14][15] The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation. Its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year.[16] Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public or state school (Boston Latin School, 1635),[17] first subway system (Tremont Street Subway, 1897),[18] and first public park (Boston Common, 1634).

The Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education,[19] including law, medicine, engineering, and business, and the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups.[20][21][22] Boston's economic base also includes finance,[23] professional and business services, biotechnology, information technology, and government activities.[24] Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States;[25] businesses and institutions rank among the top in the country for environmental sustainability and investment.[26] The city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States[27][28] as it has undergone gentrification,[29] though it remains high on world livability rankings.[30]

History

Colonial

A south east view of the great town of Boston in New England in America, c. 1730

Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine (after its "three mountains," only traces of which remain today) but later renamed it Boston after Boston, Lincolnshire, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, (Old Style)[31][b] was by Puritan colonists from England[13][32] who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest of fresh water. Their settlement was initially limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC.[33]

In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history;[34] America's first public school was founded in Boston in 1635.[17] Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America.

Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.[35] Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, and the city primarily engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties even as other cities in New England grew rapidly.[36][37]

Revolution and the Siege of Boston

In 1773, a group of Boston rebels threw a shipment of tea by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor as a response to the Tea Act, in an event known as the Boston Tea Party.
The weather continuing boisterous the next day and night, giving the enemy time to improve their works, to bring up their cannon, and to put themselves in such a state of defence, that I could promise myself little success in attacking them under all the disadvantages I had to encounter …

William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, in a letter to William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth about the British army's decision to leave Boston, dated March 21, 1776.[38]

Map of Boston in 1775
Map showing a British tactical evaluation of Boston in 1775

Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution[39] occurred in or near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city.[36] When the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, and Thomas Hutchinson, then the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts.[36][40] The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists. This did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston. The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was widely publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America.[37]

In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts. The act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels.[36] This angered the colonists further and led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Lexington and Concord.[36][41]

Boston itself was besieged for almost a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775. The New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, then the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege. On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Pyrrhic victory for the British because their army suffered devastating casualties. It was also a testament to the power and courage of the militia, as their stubborn defending made it difficult for the British to capture Charlestown without losing many troops.[42][43]

Several weeks later, George Washington took over the militia after the Continental Congress established the Continental Army to unify the revolutionary effort. Both sides faced difficulties and supply shortages in the siege, and the fighting was limited to small-scale raids and skirmishes. On March 4, 1776, Washington commanded his army to fortify Dorchester Heights, an area of Boston. The army placed cannons there to repel a British invasion against their stake in Boston. Washington was confident that the army would be able to resist a small-scale invasion with their fortifications. Howe planned an invasion into Boston, but bad weather delayed their advance. Howe decided to withdraw, because the storm gave Washington's army more time to improve their fortifications. British troops evacuated Boston on March 17, which solidified the revolutionaries' control of the city.[41][42]

Post-revolution and the War of 1812

Painting with a body of water with sailing ships in the foreground and a city in the background
View of Boston from Dorchester Heights, 1841

After the Revolution, Boston's long seafaring tradition helped make it one of the world's wealthiest international ports, with the slave trade,[44] rum, fish, salt, and tobacco being particularly important.[45] Boston's harbor activity was significantly curtailed by the Embargo Act of 1807 (adopted during the Napoleonic Wars) and the War of 1812. Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Boston's merchants had found alternatives for their capital investments in the interim. Manufacturing became an important component of the city's economy, and the city's industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance by the mid-19th century. Boston remained one of the nation's largest manufacturing centers until the early 20th century, and was known for its garment production and leather-goods industries.[46] A network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region facilitated shipment of goods and led to a proliferation of mills and factories. Later, a dense network of railroads furthered the region's industry and commerce.[47]

During this period, Boston flourished culturally, as well, admired for its rarefied literary life and generous artistic patronage,[48][49] with members of old Boston families—eventually dubbed Boston Brahmins—coming to be regarded as the nation's social and cultural elites.[50]

Boston was an early port of the Atlantic triangular slave trade in the New England colonies, but was soon overtaken by Salem, Massachusetts and Newport, Rhode Island.[51] Boston eventually became a center of the abolitionist movement.[52] The city reacted strongly to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850,[53] contributing to President Franklin Pierce's attempt to make an example of Boston after the Anthony Burns Fugitive Slave Case.[54][55]

In 1822,[14] the citizens of Boston voted to change the official name from the "Town of Boston" to the "City of Boston", and on March 4, 1822, the people of Boston accepted the charter incorporating the City.[56] At the time Boston was chartered as a city, the population was about 46,226, while the area of the city was only 4.7 square miles (12 km2).[56]

Cutting down Beacon Hill in 1811; a view from the north toward the Massachusetts State House[57]
The Old City Hall was home to the Boston city council from 1865 to 1969.

19th century

In the 1820s, Boston's population grew rapidly, and the city's ethnic composition changed dramatically with the first wave of European immigrants. Irish immigrants dominated the first wave of newcomers during this period, especially following the Irish Potato Famine; by 1850, about 35,000 Irish lived in Boston.[58] In the latter half of the 19th century, the city saw increasing numbers of Irish, Germans, Lebanese, Syrians,[59] French Canadians, and Russian and Polish Jews settling in the city. By the end of the 19th century, Boston's core neighborhoods had become enclaves of ethnically distinct immigrants. Italians inhabited the North End,[60] Irish dominated South Boston and Charlestown, and Russian Jews lived in the West End. Irish and Italian immigrants brought with them Roman Catholicism. Currently, Catholics make up Boston's largest religious community,[61] and the Irish have played a major role in Boston politics since the early 20th century; prominent figures include the Kennedys, Tip O'Neill, and John F. Fitzgerald.[62]

Between 1631 and 1890, the city tripled its area through land reclamation by filling in marshes, mud flats, and gaps between wharves along the waterfront.[63] The largest reclamation efforts took place during the 19th century; beginning in 1807, the crown of Beacon Hill was used to fill in a 50-acre (20 ha) mill pond that later became the Haymarket Square area. The present-day State House sits atop this lowered Beacon Hill. Reclamation projects in the middle of the century created significant parts of the South End, the West End, the Financial District, and Chinatown.

After the Great Boston fire of 1872, workers used building rubble as landfill along the downtown waterfront. During the mid-to-late 19th century, workers filled almost 600 acres (2.4 km2) of brackish Charles River marshlands west of Boston Common with gravel brought by rail from the hills of Needham Heights. The city annexed the adjacent towns of South Boston (1804), East Boston (1836), Roxbury (1868), Dorchester (including present-day Mattapan and a portion of South Boston) (1870), Brighton (including present-day Allston) (1874), West Roxbury (including present-day Jamaica Plain and Roslindale) (1874), Charlestown (1874), and Hyde Park (1912).[64][65] Other proposals were unsuccessful for the annexation of Brookline, Cambridge,[66] and Chelsea.[67][68]

20th century

The city went into decline by the early to mid-20th century, as factories became old and obsolete and businesses moved out of the region for cheaper labor elsewhere.[69] Boston responded by initiating various urban renewal projects, under the direction of the Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA) established in 1957. In 1958, BRA initiated a project to improve the historic West End neighborhood. Extensive demolition was met with strong public opposition.[70]

The BRA subsequently re-evaluated its approach to urban renewal in its future projects, including the construction of Government Center. In 1965, the Columbia Point Health Center opened in the Dorchester neighborhood, the first Community Health Center in the United States. It mostly served the massive Columbia Point public housing complex adjoining it, which was built in 1953. The health center is still in operation and was rededicated in 1990 as the Geiger-Gibson Community Health Center.[71] The Columbia Point complex itself was redeveloped and revitalized from 1984 to 1990 into a mixed-income residential development called Harbor Point Apartments.[72]

By the 1970s, the city's economy had recovered after 30 years of economic downturn. A large number of high-rises were constructed in the Financial District and in Boston's Back Bay during this period.[73] This boom continued into the mid-1980s and resumed after a few pauses. Hospitals such as Massachusetts General Hospital, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Brigham and Women's Hospital lead the nation in medical innovation and patient care. Schools such as Boston College, Boston University, the Harvard Medical School, Tufts University School of Medicine, Northeastern University, Massachusetts College of Art and Design, Wentworth Institute of Technology, Berklee College of Music, and Boston Conservatory attract students to the area. Nevertheless, the city experienced conflict starting in 1974 over desegregation busing, which resulted in unrest and violence around public schools throughout the mid-1970s.[74]

21st century

Boston is an intellectual, technological, and political center but has lost some important regional institutions,[75] including the loss to mergers and acquisitions of local financial institutions such as FleetBoston Financial, which was acquired by Charlotte-based Bank of America in 2004.[76] Boston-based department stores Jordan Marsh and Filene's have both merged into the Cincinnati–based Macy's.[77] The 1993 acquisition of The Boston Globe by The New York Times[78] was reversed in 2013 when it was re-sold to Boston businessman John W. Henry. In 2016, it was announced that General Electric would be moving its corporate headquarters from Connecticut to the Innovation District in South Boston, joining many other companies in this rapidly developing neighborhood.

Boston has experienced gentrification in the latter half of the 20th century,[79] with housing prices increasing sharply since the 1990s.[28] Living expenses have risen; Boston has one of the highest costs of living in the United States[80] and was ranked the 129th-most expensive major city in the world in a 2011 survey of 214 cities.[81] Despite cost-of-living issues, Boston ranks high on livability ratings, ranking 36th worldwide in quality of living in 2011 in a survey of 221 major cities.[82]

On April 15, 2013, two Chechen Islamist brothers detonated a pair of bombs near the finish line of the Boston Marathon, killing three people and injuring roughly 264.[83]

In 2016, Boston briefly shouldered a bid as the US applicant for the 2024 Summer Olympics. The bid was supported by the mayor and a coalition of business leaders and local philanthropists, but was eventually dropped due to public opposition.[84] The USOC then selected Los Angeles to be the American candidate with Los Angeles ultimately securing the right to host the 2028 Summer Olympics.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Boston
አማርኛ: ቦስቶን
العربية: بوسطن
aragonés: Boston
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܒܘܣܛܘܢ
asturianu: Boston
Aymar aru: Boston
azərbaycanca: Boston
تۆرکجه: بوستون
bamanankan: Boston
বাংলা: বস্টন
Bân-lâm-gú: Boston
башҡортса: Бостон
беларуская: Бостан
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Бостан
български: Бостън
བོད་ཡིག: བོ་སེ་ཊོན།
bosanski: Boston
brezhoneg: Boston
català: Boston
čeština: Boston
Chamoru: Boston
corsu: Boston
Cymraeg: Boston
dansk: Boston
Deutsch: Boston
dolnoserbski: Boston
eesti: Boston
Ελληνικά: Βοστώνη
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Boston
español: Boston
Esperanto: Bostono
euskara: Boston
فارسی: بوستون
føroyskt: Boston
français: Boston
Frysk: Boston
Gaelg: Boston
galego: Boston
贛語: 波士頓
Gĩkũyũ: Boston
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Boston
한국어: 보스턴
Hausa: Boston
Hawaiʻi: Pokekona
հայերեն: Բոստոն
हिन्दी: बोस्टन
hornjoserbsce: Boston
Ido: Boston
Ilokano: Boston
Bahasa Indonesia: Boston
Interlingue: Boston
Ирон: Бостон
íslenska: Boston
italiano: Boston
עברית: בוסטון
Basa Jawa: Boston
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಬಾಸ್ಟನ್
ქართული: ბოსტონი
қазақша: Бостон
kernowek: Boston
Kreyòl ayisyen: Boston, Massachusetts
кырык мары: Бостон
Ladino: Boston
Latina: Bostonia
latviešu: Bostona
Lëtzebuergesch: Boston
lietuvių: Bostonas
Ligure: Boston
lingála: Boston
lumbaart: Boston
македонски: Бостон
Māori: Boston
मराठी: बॉस्टन
მარგალური: ბოსტონი
Bahasa Melayu: Boston
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Boston
Mirandés: Boston
монгол: Бостон
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဘော့စတွန်မြို့
Nederlands: Boston
नेपाल भाषा: बस्तन
日本語: ボストン
нохчийн: Бостон
Nordfriisk: Boston
norsk: Boston
norsk nynorsk: Boston
occitan: Boston
олык марий: Бостон
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Boston
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬੌਸਟਨ
पालि: बोस्टन
پنجابی: بوسٹن
Piemontèis: Boston
polski: Boston
Ποντιακά: Βοστώνη
português: Boston
română: Boston
Romani: Boston
русский: Бостон
саха тыла: Бостон
संस्कृतम्: बास्टन्
sardu: Boston
Scots: Boston
shqip: Boston
sicilianu: Boston
Simple English: Boston
slovenščina: Boston, Massachusetts
ślůnski: Boston
Soomaaliga: Boston
کوردی: بۆستن
српски / srpski: Бостон
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Boston
suomi: Boston
svenska: Boston
தமிழ்: பாஸ்டன்
Taqbaylit: Boston
татарча/tatarça: Boston
తెలుగు: బోస్టన్
Türkçe: Boston
Twi: Boston
українська: Бостон
اردو: بوسٹن
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Boston
vèneto: Boston
vepsän kel’: Boston
Tiếng Việt: Boston
Volapük: Boston
Winaray: Boston
吴语: 波士顿
ייִדיש: באסטאן
Yorùbá: Boston
粵語: 波士頓
Zazaki: Boston
žemaitėška: Bostons
中文: 波士顿
डोटेली: बोस्टन
Lingua Franca Nova: Boston