Bonan language

Native toChina
RegionGansu, Qinghai
Native speakers
6,000 (1999)[1]
  • Shirongolic
    • Bonan
Language codes
ISO 639-3peh
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The Bonan language (pronounced [p⁼aoˈnaŋ], Baonang) (Chinese 保安语 Bǎo'ān yǔ, Amdo Tibetan Dorké) is the Mongolic language of the Bonan people of China. As of 1985, it was spoken by about 8,000 people, including about 75% of the total Bonan ethnic population and many ethnic Monguor, in Gansu and Qinghai Provinces and the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture. There are several dialects, which are influenced to varying degrees — but always heavily — by Tibetan and Chinese, while bilingualism in Wutun is less common. The most commonly studied is the Tongren dialect. There is no writing system in use.[3] The language is also referred to as "Manegacha", natively.[4]


Bonan phonology has been heavily influenced by Tibetan. Consonants possess a [±aspirated] contrast. Initial consonant clusters of mostly falling sonority are present in native words, as are heavy diphthongs, though the content of both is heavily restricted. The possible word-initial consonant clusters in Bonan are [mp, nt, nt͡ɕ, ntʂ, ŋk, tʰχ, χt͡ɕ, rt͡ɕ, lt͡ɕ, ft, fk, ʂp, ʂk].

Ñantoq Baoan has six vowels /a, e, ə, i, ɵ, u/, with long counterparts for all except /ə/.[5]

Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Retroflex Alveolo-palatal Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Stop voiceless p t k
voiced b d g ɢ
Affricate voiceless t͡s t͡ɕ
voiced d͡z d͡ʑ
Fricative voiceless f s ʂ ɕ χ h
voiced ʑ
Nasal m n ŋ
Approximant l j w
Trill r
Other Languages
brezhoneg: Bonaneg
français: Bonan (langue)
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Bonan
italiano: Lingua bonan
македонски: Боански јазик
монгол: Баоань хэл
日本語: バオアン語
norsk: Bonanisk
Piemontèis: Lenga bonan
ślůnski: Bonanskŏ gŏdka
中文: 保安语