Bolivia

Plurinational State of Bolivia
  • Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia  (Spanish)
  • Tetã Hetãvoregua Volívia  (Guaraní)
  • Buliwya Mamallaqta  (Quechua)
  • Wuliwya Suyu  (Aymara)
Motto: "La Unión es la Fuerza" (Spanish)
"Unity is Strength"[1]
Anthem: Himno Nacional de Bolivia  (Spanish)
Location of  Bolivia  (dark green)in South America  (grey)
Location of  Bolivia  (dark green)

in South America  (grey)

CapitalSucre [1]
Largest citySanta Cruz de la Sierra
17°48′S 63°10′W / 17°48′S 63°10′W / -17.800; -63.167
Official languages[2]
Ethnic groups (2009[3])
DemonymBolivian
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
Evo Morales
Álvaro García Linera
LegislaturePlurinational Legislative Assembly
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Independence from Spain
• Declared
6 August 1825
• Recognized
21 July 1847
14 November 1945
• Current constitution
7 February 2009
Area
• Total
1,098,581 km2 (424,164 sq mi) (27th)
• Water (%)
1.29
Population
• 2018 estimate
11,217,864[4] (83rd)
• Density
10.2/km2 (26.4/sq mi) (224th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$88.529 billion[5] (92nd)
• Per capita
$7,870[5] (125th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$40.737 billion[6] (95th)
• Per capita
$3,647[5] (122th)
Gini (2015)Positive decrease 45.8[7]
medium
HDI (2015)Steady 0.674[8]
medium · 118th
CurrencyBoliviano (BOB)
Time zoneBOT (UTC−4)
Drives on theright
Calling code+591
ISO 3166 codeBO
Internet TLD.bo
  1. ^ While Sucre is the constitutional capital, La Paz is the seat of the government as member of the UCCI and the de facto capital. See below.

Bolivia (ə/ (About this sound listen); Spanish: [boˈliβja]; Guarani: Mborivia [ᵐboˈɾiʋja]; Quechua: Buliwya [bʊlɪwja]; Aymara: Wuliwya [wʊlɪwja]), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Spanish: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia),[9][10] is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The capital is Sucre while the seat of government is located in La Paz. The largest city and principal economic and financial center is Santa Cruz de la Sierra, located on the Llanos Orientales (Tropical lowlands) a mostly flat region in the East of Bolivia.

It is constitutionally a unitary state, divided into nine departments. Its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru. One-third of the country is within the Andean mountain range. With 1,098,581 km2 (424,164 sq mi) of area, Bolivia is the 5th largest country in South America and the 27th largest in the world.

The country's population, estimated at 11 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Mestizos, Europeans, Asians and Africans. The racial and social segregation that arose from Spanish colonialism has continued to the modern era. Spanish is the official and predominant language, although 36 indigenous languages also have official status, of which the most commonly spoken are Guarani, Aymara and Quechua languages.

Before Spanish colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited by independent tribes. Spanish conquistadors arriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. During the Spanish colonial period Bolivia was administered by the Royal Audiencia of Charcas. Spain built its empire in great part upon the silver that was extracted from Bolivia's mines. After the first call for independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar. Over the course of the 19th and early 20th century Bolivia lost control of several peripheral territories to neighboring countries including the seizure of its coastline by Chile in 1879. Bolivia remained relatively politically stable until 1971, when Hugo Banzer led a coup d'état which replaced the unstable government of Juan José Torres with a military dictatorship headed by Banzer; Torres was murdered in Buenos Aires, Argentina by a right-wing death squad in 1976. Banzer's presidency oversaw rapid economic growth which stabilized the country, while his regime cracked down on leftist and socialist opposition and other forms of dissent, resulting in the torture and deaths of a number of Bolivian citizens. Banzer was ousted in 1978 and later returned as the democratically elected president of Bolivia from 1997 to 2001.

Modern Bolivia is a charter member of the UN, IMF, NAM, OAS, ACTO, Bank of the South, ALBA and USAN. For over a decade Bolivia has had one of the fastest economic growths in Latin America, however it remains one of the poorest countries in South America.[11] [12] It is a developing country, with a medium ranking in the Human Development Index, a poverty level of 38.6 percent,[13] and it has one of the lowest crime rates in Latin America.[14] Its main economic activities include agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and manufacturing goods such as textiles, clothing, refined metals, and refined petroleum. Bolivia is very rich in minerals, especially tin.

Etymology

Bolivia is named after Simón Bolívar, a leader in the Spanish American wars of independence.[15] The leader of Venezuela, Antonio José de Sucre, had been given the option by Bolívar to either unite Charcas (present-day Bolivia) with the newly formed Republic of Peru, to unite with the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, or to formally declare its independence from Spain as a wholly independent nation. Sucre opted to create a brand new nation and on 6 August 1825, with local support, named it in honor of Simón Bolívar.[16]

The original name was Republic of Bolívar. Some days later, congressman Manuel Martín Cruz proposed: "If from Romulus comes Rome, then from Bolívar comes Bolivia" (Spanish: Si de Rómulo Roma, de Bolívar Bolivia). The name was approved by the Republic on 3 October 1825.[17] In 2009, a new constitution changed the country's official name to "Plurinational State of Bolivia" in recognition of the multi-ethnic nature of the country and the enhanced position of Bolivia's indigenous peoples under the new constitution.[18]

Other Languages
Acèh: Bolivia
адыгабзэ: Боливие
Afrikaans: Bolivië
Alemannisch: Bolivien
አማርኛ: ቦሊቪያ
Ænglisc: Bolifia
Аҧсшәа: Боливиа
العربية: بوليفيا
aragonés: Bolivia
arpetan: Bolivie
asturianu: Bolivia
Avañe'ẽ: Vorívia
Aymar aru: Wuliwya
azərbaycanca: Boliviya
تۆرکجه: بولیوی
bamanankan: Bolivia
বাংলা: বলিভিয়া
Bân-lâm-gú: Bolivia
башҡортса: Боливия
беларуская: Балівія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Балівія
भोजपुरी: बोलीविया
Bikol Central: Bolibya
Bislama: Bolivia
български: Боливия
Boarisch: Bolivien
bosanski: Bolivija
brezhoneg: Bolivia
буряад: Боливи
català: Bolívia
Чӑвашла: Боливи
Cebuano: Bolivia
čeština: Bolívie
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Bolivia
chiShona: Bolivia
corsu: Bolivia
Cymraeg: Bolifia
dansk: Bolivia
davvisámegiella: Bolivia
Deutsch: Bolivien
ދިވެހިބަސް: ބޮލީވިއާ
dolnoserbski: Boliwiska
eesti: Boliivia
Ελληνικά: Βολιβία
español: Bolivia
Esperanto: Bolivio
estremeñu: Bolívia
euskara: Bolivia
eʋegbe: Bolivia
فارسی: بولیوی
Fiji Hindi: Bolivia
føroyskt: Bolivia
français: Bolivie
Frysk: Bolivia
Gaeilge: An Bholaiv
Gaelg: Yn Volivia
Gagauz: Boliviya
Gàidhlig: Boilibhia
galego: Bolivia
Gĩkũyũ: Bolivia
ગુજરાતી: બોલીવિયા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: बोलिव्हिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Bolivia
한국어: 볼리비아
Հայերեն: Բոլիվիա
हिन्दी: बोलिविया
hornjoserbsce: Boliwiska
hrvatski: Bolivija
Ido: Bolivia
Igbo: Bolivia
Ilokano: Bolivia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: বলিভিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Bolivia
interlingua: Bolivia
Interlingue: Bolivia
Ирон: Боливи
íslenska: Bólivía
italiano: Bolivia
עברית: בוליביה
Basa Jawa: Bolivia
kalaallisut: Bolivia
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಬೊಲಿವಿಯ
Kapampangan: Bolivia
къарачай-малкъар: Боливия
ქართული: ბოლივია
қазақша: Боливия
kernowek: Bolivi
Kinyarwanda: Boliviya
Kirundi: Boliviya
Kiswahili: Bolivia
Kongo: Bolivia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Bolivi
kurdî: Bolîvya
Кыргызча: Боливия
кырык мары: Боливи
Ladino: Bolivia
лезги: Боливия
لۊری شومالی: بۊلیڤی
latgaļu: Boliveja
Latina: Bolivia
latviešu: Bolīvija
Lëtzebuergesch: Bolivien
lietuvių: Bolivija
Ligure: Bolivia
Limburgs: Bolivia
lingála: Bolivia
Livvinkarjala: Bolivii
la .lojban.: bolivias
lumbaart: Bulivia
magyar: Bolívia
македонски: Боливија
Malagasy: Bolivia
മലയാളം: ബൊളീവിയ
Malti: Bolivja
Māori: Poriwia
მარგალური: ბოლივია
مصرى: بوليفيا
مازِرونی: بولیوی
Bahasa Melayu: Bolivia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Bolivia
Mirandés: Bolíbia
монгол: Боливи
Nāhuatl: Bolivia
Dorerin Naoero: Boribiya
Nederlands: Bolivia
नेपाली: बोलिभिया
नेपाल भाषा: बोलिभिया
日本語: ボリビア
Napulitano: Bolivia
нохчийн: Боливи
Nordfriisk: Boliiwien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Boliwya
norsk: Bolivia
norsk nynorsk: Bolivia
Novial: Bolivia
occitan: Bolívia
олык марий: Боливий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ବୋଲିଭିଆ
Oromoo: Boliiviyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Boliviya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬੋਲੀਵੀਆ
Pälzisch: Bolivje
Pangasinan: Bolivia
پنجابی: بولیویا
Papiamentu: Bolivia
پښتو: بولېویا
Patois: Bolivia
Piemontèis: Bolivia
Tok Pisin: Bolivia
Plattdüütsch: Bolivien
polski: Boliwia
português: Bolívia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Boliviya
qırımtatarca: Boliviya
română: Bolivia
Romani: Boliviya
rumantsch: Bolivia
Runa Simi: Wuliwiya
русиньскый: Болівія
русский: Боливия
саха тыла: Боливия
Gagana Samoa: Polevia
संस्कृतम्: बोलिविया
sardu: Bolìvia
Scots: Bolivie
Seeltersk: Bolivien
shqip: Bolivia
sicilianu: Bolivia
Simple English: Bolivia
SiSwati: IBholiviya
slovenčina: Bolívia
slovenščina: Bolivija
ślůnski: Boliwijo
Soomaaliga: Booliifiya
کوردی: بۆلیڤیا
српски / srpski: Боливија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bolivija
Basa Sunda: Bolivia
suomi: Bolivia
svenska: Bolivia
Tagalog: Bolivia
தமிழ்: பொலிவியா
Taqbaylit: Bolivia
татарча/tatarça: Боливия
తెలుగు: బొలీవియా
tetun: Bolívia
тоҷикӣ: Боливия
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏉᎵᏫᎠ
Türkçe: Bolivya
Türkmençe: Boliwiýa
українська: Болівія
اردو: بولیویا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: بولىۋىيە
Vahcuengh: Bolivia
vèneto: Bołivia
vepsän kel’: Bolivii
Tiếng Việt: Bolivia
Volapük: Bolivän
Võro: Boliivia
walon: Boliveye
文言: 玻利維亞
Winaray: Bolivia
Wolof: Boliibi
吴语: 玻利维亚
ייִדיש: באליוויע
Yorùbá: Bòlífíà
粵語: 玻利維亞
Zazaki: Bolivya
Zeêuws: Bolivia
žemaitėška: Buolėvėjė
中文: 玻利維亞
डोटेली: बोलिभिया
Kabɩyɛ: Polivi
Lingua Franca Nova: Bolivia