Boiling is the rapid
Boiling water is used as a method of making it potable by killing microbes that may be present. The sensitivity of different micro-organisms to heat varies, but if water is held at 70 °C (158 °F) for ten minutes, many organisms are killed, but some are more resistant to heat and require one minute at the boiling point of water. Clostridium spores can survive this treatment, but as the infection caused by this microbe is not water-borne, this is not a problem.
Boiling is also used in cooking. Foods suitable for boiling include vegetables, starchy foods such as rice, noodles and potatoes, eggs, meats, sauces, stocks and soups. As a cooking method it is simple and suitable for large scale cookery. Tough meats or poultry can be given a long, slow cooking and a nutritious stock is produced. Disadvantages include loss of water-soluble vitamins and minerals. Commercially prepared foodstuffs are sometimes packed in polythene sachets and sold as "boil-in-the-bag" products.
An irregular surface of the boiling vessel (i.e., increased surface roughness) or additives to the fluid (i.e., surfactants and/or nanoparticles
) can create additional nucleation sites,
 while an exceptionally smooth surface, such as plastic, lends itself to
As the boiling surface is heated above a critical temperature, a film of vapor forms on the surface. Since this vapor film is much less capable of carrying heat away from the surface, the temperature rises very rapidly beyond this point into the
The formation of
If a surface heating the liquid is significantly hotter than the liquid then film boiling will occur, where a thin layer of vapor, which has low