Bird

  • birds
    temporal range:
    early cretaceous (aptian) – present,[1] 121–0 mya
    preЄ
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    bird diversity 2013.png
    about this image
    scientific classification e
    kingdom: animalia
    phylum: chordata
    clade: ornithurae
    class: aves
    linnaeus, 1758[2]
    extant orders and temporal range
    see orders
    * infraclass palaeognathae
      • superorder struthionimorphae
        • struthioniformes (ostrichs) – 58?–0 mya, late paleocene?–present
      • superorder notopalaeognathae
        • rheiformes (rheas) – 56–0 mya, late paleocene–present
        • tinamiformes (tinamous) – 10–0 mya, middle miocene–present
        • casuariiformes (casowaries and emus) – 58.7–0 mya, late paleocene–present
        • apterygiformes (kiwis) – 23.03–0 mya, early miocene–present
    • infraclass neognathae
      • superorder galloanserae
        • galliformes (gamebirds) – 45–0 mya, middle eocene–present
        • anseriformes (waterfowl) – 71–0 mya, late cretaceous (maastrichtian)–present
      • superorder neoaves
        • phoenicopteriformes (flamingos) – 50–0 mya, early eocene–present
        • podicipediformes (grebes) – 25–0 mya, late oligocene–present
        • columbiformes (pigeons and doves) – 23.03–0 mya, early miocene–present
        • mesitornithiformes (mesites) – no fossil records
        • pterocliformes (sandgrouse) – 33.9–0 mya, late oligocene–present
        • apodiformes (swifts, treeswifts and hummingbirds) – 52–0 mya, early eocene–present
        • caprimulgiformes (nightjars, nighthawks, potoos, oilbirds, frogmouths and owlet-nightjars) – 59.2–0 mya, middle paleocene–present
        • cuculiformes (cuckoos, anis, etc) – 34–0 mya, late miocene–present
        • otidiformes (bustards, floricans, etc) – 13–0 mya, middle miocene–present
        • musophagiformes (turacos and go-away-birds) – 24–0 mya, late oligocene–present
        • opisthocomiformes (hoatzin) – 33.9–0 mya, late eocene–present
        • gruiformes (cranes, crakes, rails, wood-rails, fluftais, gallinules, limpkins, trumpeters, finfoots and sungrebes) – 66–0 mya, late cretaceous (maastrichtian)–present
        • charadriiformes (plovers, crab plovers, lapwings, seagulls, puffins, auks, sandipipers, buttonquails, stilts, avocets, ibisbills, woodcocks, skuas, etc) – 75–0 mya, late cretaceous (campanian)–present
        • gaviiformes (loons) – 70–0 mya, late cretaceous (maastrichtian)–present
        • procellariiformes (petrels, storm petrels, albatrosses and diving petrels) – 33.9–0 mya, early oligocene–present
        • sphenisciformes (penguins) – 62–0 mya, early paleocene–present
        • ciconiiformes (storks, openbills and jabirus) – 30–0 mya, early oligocene–present
        • suliformes (boobiess, gannets, fregatbirds, cormorants, shags and anhigas) – 90–0 mya, late cretaceous (turonian)–present
        • pelecaniformes (pelicans, ibises, shoebills, egretts, herons, etc) – 66–0 mya, late cretaceous (maastrichtian)–present
        • eurypygiformes (sunbitterns and kagu) – 56–0 mya, late paleocene–present
        • phaethontiformes (tropicbirds) – 58.7–0 mya, late paleocene–present
        • cathartiformes (new world vultures) – 41–0 mya, middle eocene–present
        • accipitriformes (eagles, old world vultures, secretary-birds, hawks, harriers, etc) – 47–0 mya, late eocene–present
        • strigiformes (owls) – 30–0 mya, early oligocene–present
        • coliiformes (mousebirds) – ~65–0 mya, early paleocene–present
        • leptosomiformes (cuckoorollers) – no fossil record
        • trogoniformes (trogons and quetzals) – 49–0 mya, early eocene–present
        • bucerotiformes (hornbills, hoopoes and wood-hoopoes) – ~40–0 mya, middle eocene–present
        • coraciiformes (rollers, bee eaters, todys, kingfishers, etc) – 41.2–0 mya, middle eocene–present
        • piciformes (woodpeckers, flickers, toucans, aracaris, motmots, etc) – 56–0 mya, early eocene–present
        • cariamiformes (seriema) – 66–0 mya, late cretaceous (maastrichtian)–present
        • falconiformes (falcons and caracaras) – 50–0 mya, early eocene–present
        • psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos) – 50–0 mya, early eocene–present
        • passeriformes (passerines) – 52.5–0 mya, early eocene–present
    synonyms
    • neornithes gadow, 1883

    birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class aves, characterized by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. there are about ten thousand living species,[3] more than half of which are passerine, or "perching" birds. birds have wings whose development varies according to species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds. wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in some birds, including ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species. the digestive and respiratory systems of birds are also uniquely adapted for flight. some bird species of aquatic environments, particularly seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming.

    birds are a group of feathered theropod dinosaurs, and constitute the only living dinosaurs. likewise, the closest living relatives of birds are the crocodilians. birds are descendants of the primitive avialans (whose members include archaeopteryx) which first appeared about 160 million years ago (mya) in china. according to dna evidence, modern birds (neornithes) evolved in the middle to late cretaceous, and diversified dramatically around the time of the cretaceous–paleogene extinction event 66 mya, which killed off the pterosaurs and all non-avian dinosaurs.

    many social species pass on knowledge across generations, which is considered a form of culture. birds are social, communicating with visual signals, calls, and songs, and participating in such behaviours as cooperative breeding and hunting, flocking, and mobbing of predators. the vast majority of bird species are socially (but not necessarily sexually) monogamous, usually for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, but rarely for life. other species have breeding systems that are polygynous (one male with many females) or, rarely, polyandrous (one female with many males). birds produce offspring by laying eggs which are fertilised through sexual reproduction. they are usually laid in a nest and incubated by the parents. most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching.

    many species of birds are economically important as food for human consumption and raw material in manufacturing, with domesticated and undomesticated birds being important sources of eggs, meat, and feathers. songbirds, parrots, and other species are popular as pets. guano (bird excrement) is harvested for use as a fertiliser. birds figure throughout human culture. about 120 to 130 species have become extinct due to human activity since the 17th century, and hundreds more before then. human activity threatens about 1,200 bird species with extinction, though efforts are underway to protect them. recreational birdwatching is an important part of the ecotourism industry.

  • evolution and classification
  • distribution
  • anatomy and physiology
  • behaviour
  • ecology
  • relationship with humans
  • see also
  • notes
  • external links

Birds
Temporal range:
Early Cretaceous (Aptian) – Present,[1] 121–0 Mya
Red-crested turacoSteller's sea eagleRock doveSouthern cassowaryGentoo penguinBar-throated minlaShoebillGrey crowned craneAnna's hummingbirdRainbow lorikeetGrey heronEurasian eagle-owlWhite-tailed tropicbirdIndian peafowlAtlantic puffinAmerican flamingoBlue-footed boobyKeel-billed toucanBird Diversity 2013.png
About this image
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Ornithurae
Class: Aves
Linnaeus, 1758[2]
Extant Orders and temporal range
See orders
* Infraclass Palaeognathae
Synonyms
  • Neornithes Gadow, 1883

Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Aves, characterized by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. There are about ten thousand living species,[3] more than half of which are passerine, or "perching" birds. Birds have wings whose development varies according to species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in some birds, including ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species. The digestive and respiratory systems of birds are also uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments, particularly seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming.

Birds are a group of feathered theropod dinosaurs, and constitute the only living dinosaurs. Likewise, the closest living relatives of birds are the crocodilians. Birds are descendants of the primitive avialans (whose members include Archaeopteryx) which first appeared about 160 million years ago (mya) in China. According to DNA evidence, modern birds (Neornithes) evolved in the Middle to Late Cretaceous, and diversified dramatically around the time of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 mya, which killed off the pterosaurs and all non-avian dinosaurs.

Many social species pass on knowledge across generations, which is considered a form of culture. Birds are social, communicating with visual signals, calls, and songs, and participating in such behaviours as cooperative breeding and hunting, flocking, and mobbing of predators. The vast majority of bird species are socially (but not necessarily sexually) monogamous, usually for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, but rarely for life. Other species have breeding systems that are polygynous (one male with many females) or, rarely, polyandrous (one female with many males). Birds produce offspring by laying eggs which are fertilised through sexual reproduction. They are usually laid in a nest and incubated by the parents. Most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching.

Many species of birds are economically important as food for human consumption and raw material in manufacturing, with domesticated and undomesticated birds being important sources of eggs, meat, and feathers. Songbirds, parrots, and other species are popular as pets. Guano (bird excrement) is harvested for use as a fertiliser. Birds figure throughout human culture. About 120 to 130 species have become extinct due to human activity since the 17th century, and hundreds more before then. Human activity threatens about 1,200 bird species with extinction, though efforts are underway to protect them. Recreational birdwatching is an important part of the ecotourism industry.

Other Languages
Acèh: Cicém
Адыгэбзэ: Къуалэбзухэр
адыгабзэ: Бзыу
Afrikaans: Voël
Akan: Anomaa
Alemannisch: Vögel
አማርኛ: ወፍ
Ænglisc: Fugol
العربية: طائر
aragonés: Aves
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܛܝܪܐ
armãneashti: Puľiu
arpetan: Usél
অসমীয়া: চৰাই
asturianu: Aves
Avañe'ẽ: Guyra
авар: ХӀинчӀ
Aymar aru: Jamach'i
azərbaycanca: Quşlar
تۆرکجه: قوش
Bali: Kedis
বাংলা: পাখি
Banjar: Burung
Bân-lâm-gú: Chiáu
башҡортса: Ҡоштар
беларуская: Птушкі
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Птушкі
भोजपुरी: चिरई
Bikol Central: Gamgam
Bislama: Pijin
български: Птици
Boarisch: Vegl
བོད་ཡིག: བྱ།
bosanski: Ptice
brezhoneg: Evn
буряад: Шубуун
català: Ocells
Cebuano: Langgam
čeština: Ptáci
chiShona: Shiri
chiTumbuka: Viyuni
Cymraeg: Aderyn
dansk: Fugle
Deitsch: Voggel
Deutsch: Vögel
Diné bizaad: Tsídii
dolnoserbski: Ptaški
eesti: Linnud
Ελληνικά: Πτηνά
эрзянь: Нармунть
español: Aves
Esperanto: Birdoj
estremeñu: Páxaru
euskara: Hegazti
فارسی: پرنده
Fiji Hindi: Chirriya
føroyskt: Fuglur
français: Oiseau
Frysk: Fûgels
Gaeilge: Éan
Gaelg: Ushag
Gàidhlig: Eun
galego: Aves
ГӀалгӀай: Оалхазараш
贛語: 雀仔
ગુજરાતી: પક્ષી
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Tiâu
хальмг: Шовуд
한국어:
Hausa: Tsuntsu
հայերեն: Թռչուններ
हिन्दी: पक्षी
hornjoserbsce: Ptaki
hrvatski: Ptice
Ido: Ucelo
Ilokano: Billit
Bahasa Indonesia: Burung
interlingua: Aves
Ирон: Мæргътæ
isiXhosa: Yentaka
íslenska: Fugl
italiano: Aves
עברית: עופות
Jawa: Manuk
Kabɩyɛ: Sumaɣ
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಪಕ್ಷಿ
Kapampangan: Ayup
ქართული: ფრინველები
kaszëbsczi: Ptôchë
қазақша: Құстар
kernowek: Edhen
Kiswahili: Ndege (mnyama)
Kreyòl ayisyen: Zwazo
kriyòl gwiyannen: Zozo
kurdî: Balinde
Кыргызча: Куш
кырык мары: Кек
лакку: Лелуххи
latgaļu: Putni
Latina: Aves
latviešu: Putni
Lëtzebuergesch: Vullen
лезги: НуькI
lietuvių: Paukščiai
Ligure: Aves
Limburgs: Veugel
lingála: Ndɛkɛ
Lingua Franca Nova: Avia
la .lojban.: lo cipni
magyar: Madarak
македонски: Птици
Malagasy: Vorona
മലയാളം: പക്ഷി
Malti: Għasfur
मराठी: पक्षी
მარგალური: მაფურინჯეეფი
مصرى: طير
Bahasa Melayu: Burung
Minangkabau: Buruang
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Cēu
мокшень: Нармонь
монгол: Шувуу
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ငှက်
Nāhuatl: Tototl
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Manumanu vuka
Nederlands: Vogels
Nedersaksies: Voegel
नेपाली: चरा
नेपाल भाषा: झंगः
日本語: 鳥類
Napulitano: Auciello
нохчийн: Олхазарш
Nordfriisk: Fögler
norsk: Fugler
norsk nynorsk: Fuglar
Nouormand: Ouaîsé
occitan: Ausèl
олык марий: Кайык
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ପକ୍ଷୀ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Qushlar
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਪੰਛੀ
پنجابی: پنچھی
پښتو: مرغه
Patois: Bod
Перем Коми: Кайез
ភាសាខ្មែរ: បក្សី
Picard: Oizo
Piemontèis: Osej
Plattdüütsch: Vagels
polski: Ptaki
português: Aves
română: Pasăre
rumantsch: Utschels
Runa Simi: Pisqu
русиньскый: Птахы
русский: Птицы
саха тыла: Көтөрдөр
Sakizaya: ayam
संस्कृतम्: पक्षिणः
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱪᱮᱬᱮ
sardu: Aves
Scots: Bird
Seeltersk: Fuugele
shqip: Zogjtë
sicilianu: Aceddu
සිංහල: කුරුල්ලෝ
Simple English: Bird
سنڌي: پکي
SiSwati: Tinyoni
slovenčina: Vtáky
slovenščina: Ptiči
ślůnski: Ptoki
Soomaaliga: Shimbir
کوردی: مەل
српски / srpski: Птице
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Ptica
Sunda: Manuk
suomi: Linnut
svenska: Fåglar
Tagalog: Ibon
தமிழ்: பறவை
Taqbaylit: Aylal
татарча/tatarça: Кошлар
ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆး : ၼူၵ်ႉ
తెలుగు: పక్షి
тоҷикӣ: Паранда
Tsetsêhestâhese: Ve'kese
ತುಳು: ಪಕ್ಕಿ
Türkçe: Kuş
удмурт: Тылобурдо
українська: Птахи
اردو: پرندہ
Vahcuengh: Duzroeg
vèneto: Oxei
vepsän kel’: Lindud
Tiếng Việt: Chim
Volapük: Böds
Võro: Tsirk
walon: Oujhea
文言:
West-Vlams: Veugel
Winaray: Tamsi
吴语:
ייִדיש: פויגל
Yorùbá: Ẹyẹ
粵語:
Zazaki: Mıriçıki
Zeêuws: Veugels
žemaitėška: Paukštē
中文: