Bermuda

Bermuda
Motto: 
Anthem: " God Save the Queen(official)

" Hail to Bermuda(unofficial)
"All the Bermudians" (unofficial)a
Location of Bermuda
Location of  Bermuda  (circled in red)in the Atlantic Ocean  (blue)
Location of  Bermuda  (circled in red)

in the Atlantic Ocean  (blue)

Status British Overseas Territory
Capital Hamilton
32°18′N 64°47′W / 32°18′N 64°47′W / 32.300; -64.783
Largest city St George's
Official languages English [2]
Ethnic groups (2010 [3])
Demonym Bermudian
Government Parliamentary dependency under constitutional monarchy
•  Monarch
Elizabeth II
•  Governor
John Rankin
•  Premier
E. David Burt
• Responsible Ministerb ( UK)
Baroness Anelay of St John's
Legislature Parliament
Senate
House of Assembly
Area
• Total
53.2 km2 (20.5 sq mi)
• Water (%)
27
Population
• 2010 census
64,237
• Density
1,275/km2 (3,302.2/sq mi) ( 9th)
GDP (nominal) 2014 [4] estimate
• Total
$5.60 billion [4] ( 161th (estimate))
• Per capita
$89,795 [4] [4] ( 4th)
HDI (2008) Increase 0.981
very high
Currency Bermudian dollarc ( BMD)
Time zone AST ( UTC–4)
• Summer ( DST)
ADT ( UTC–3)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy ( AD)
Drives on the left
Calling code +1-441
ISO 3166 code BM
Internet TLD .bm
  1. This song is also used at international sporting events such as the "Bermuda – London 2012 Olympics". Telegraph. July 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012. )
  2. For the Overseas Territories.
  3. On par with United States dollar.

Bermuda ( ə/) is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. It is approximately 1,070 km (665 mi) east-southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina; 1,236 km (768 mi) south of Cape Sable Island, Nova Scotia; and 1,578 km (981 mi) north of Puerto Rico. The capital city is Hamilton. Bermuda is an associate member of Caribbean Community (CARICOM).

The first person known to have reached Bermuda was the Spanish sea captain Juan de Bermúdez in 1503, after whom the islands are named. He claimed the islands for the Spanish Empire. Bermúdez never landed on the islands, but made two visits to the archipelago, of which he created a recognisable map. Shipwrecked Portuguese mariners are now thought to have been responsible for the 1543 inscription on Portuguese Rock (previously called Spanish Rock). [5] Subsequent Spanish or other European parties are believed to have released pigs there, which had become feral and abundant on the island by the time European settlement began. In 1609, the English Virginia Company, which had established Jamestown in Virginia two years earlier, permanently settled Bermuda in the aftermath of a hurricane, when the crew and passengers of the Sea Venture steered the ship onto the surrounding reef to prevent its sinking, then landed ashore.

The island was administered as an extension of Virginia by the Company until 1614. Its spin-off, the Somers Isles Company, took over in 1615 and managed the colony until 1684. At that time, the company's charter was revoked, and the English Crown took over administration. The islands became a British colony following the 1707 unification of the parliaments of Scotland and England, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. After 1949, when Newfoundland became part of Canada, Bermuda became the oldest remaining British overseas territory. After the return of Hong Kong to China in 1997, Bermuda became the most populous remaining dependent territory (from 2002 overseas territory). Its first capital, St. George's, was established in 1612. [6]

Bermuda's economy is based on offshore insurance and reinsurance, and tourism, the two largest economic sectors. [6] [7] Bermuda had one of the world's highest GDP per capita for most of the 20th century [8] and several years beyond. Recently, its economic status has been affected by the global recession. It has a subtropical climate. [9] Bermuda is the northernmost point of the Bermuda Triangle, a region of sea in which, according to legend, a number of aircraft and surface vessels have disappeared under supposedly unexplained or mysterious circumstances. The island is in the hurricane belt and prone to related severe weather; however, it is somewhat protected by a coral reef that surrounds the island and its position at the north of the belt, which limits the direction and severity of approaching storms. [10]

Geography

View from the top of Gibb's Hill Lighthouse
Landsat 8 satellite image
Bermuda pictured from the International Space Station
Topographic map of Bermuda

Bermuda is a group of low-forming volcanoes in the Atlantic Ocean, near the western edge of the Sargasso Sea, roughly 578 nautical miles (1,070 km (665 mi)) east-southeast of Cape Hatteras [11] on the Outer Banks of North Carolina and about 594 nautical miles (1,100 km (684 mi)) southeast of Martha's Vineyard of Massachusetts. It is 898 nautical miles (1,664 km (1,034 mi)) northeast of Miami, Florida, and 667 nautical miles (1,236 km (768 mi)) from Cape Sable Island, in Nova Scotia, Canada. The islands lie due east of Fripp Island, South Carolina, west-northwest of Cape Verde, southeast of New York City, New York, north-northwest of Brazil and north of Puerto Rico. [12]

The archipelago is formed by high points on the rim of the caldera of a submarine volcano that forms a seamount. The volcano is one part of a range that was formed as part of the same process that formed the floor of the Atlantic and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The top of the seamount has gone through periods of complete submergence, during which its limestone cap was formed by marine organisms, and in the Ice Ages the entire caldera was above sea level, forming an island of approximately two hundred square miles.

It has 103 km (64 mi) of coastline. The two incorporated municipalities in Bermuda are the City of Hamilton and the Town of St George. Bermuda is divided into nine parishes, which have some localities called villages, such as Flatts Village and Somerset Village.

Although usually referred to in the singular, the territory consists of 181 islands, [13] with a total area of 53.3 square kilometres (20.6 square miles). [13] The largest island is Main Island, sometimes called Bermuda. Eight of the larger islands are connected by bridges, and are the populated islands. [13] Compiling a list of the islands is often complicated, as many have more than one name (as does the entire archipelago, which has also been known historically as La Garza, Virgineola, and the Isle of Devils. Somers Isles is often rendered "Somers Islands", or mistaken for "Summer Isles").[ citation needed]

Despite the small land mass, place names are repeated: two islands named Long Island, three bays named Long Bay (on Somerset, Main, and Cooper's islands), two Horseshoe Bays (one in Southampton, on the Main Island, the other at Morgan's Point, formerly Tucker's Island), two roads through cuttings called Khyber Pass, one in Warwick, the other in St. George's Parish, and two St George's Towns on St George's Island in St George's Parish, each known as St George's. There is a Hamilton Parish in addition to the City of Hamilton in Pembroke Parish.

Administrative divisions

Parishes of Bermuda.

Bermuda is divided into nine parishes and two incorporated municipalities.

Bermuda's nine parishes are:

Bermuda's two incorporated municipalities are:

Bermuda's two informal villages are:

Jones Village in Warwick, Cashew City (St. George's), Claytown (Hamilton), Middle Town (Pembroke), and Tucker's Town (St. George's) are neighbourhoods; Dandy Town and North Village are sports clubs, and Harbour View Village is a small public housing development.

Main sights

One of Bermuda's pink-sand beaches at Astwood Park.

Bermuda's pink sand beaches and clear, cerulean blue ocean waters are popular with tourists. Many of Bermuda's few hotels are located along the south shore of the island. In addition to its beaches, there are a number of sightseeing attractions. Historic St George's is a designated World Heritage Site. Scuba divers can explore numerous wrecks and coral reefs in relatively shallow water (typically 30–40 ft or 9–12 m in depth), with virtually unlimited visibility. Many nearby reefs are readily accessible from shore by snorkellers, especially at Church Bay.

Bermuda's most popular visitor attraction is the Royal Naval Dockyard, which includes the Bermuda Maritime Museum. Other attractions include the Bermuda Aquarium, Museum and Zoo, [14] Bermuda Underwater Exploration Institute, the Botanical Gardens and Masterworks Museum of Bermuda Art, lighthouses, and the Crystal Caves with stalactites and underground saltwater pools. Admiralty House is another nice attraction where locals and visitors enjoy cliff diving into the beautiful blue water and where you are able to see Dockyard in the distance.

It is not possible to rent a car on the island; public transport and taxis are available or visitors can hire scooters for use as private transport. [13]

Climate

Residential scene in Bermuda

Bermuda has a humid subtropical climate [9] [15] ( Köppen Cfa). Bermuda is warmed by the nearby Gulf Stream, and low latitude. The islands may experience modestly cooler temperatures in January, February, and March (average 63 °F (17 °C)). [16] There has never been snow, a frost or freeze on record in Bermuda.

Summertime heat index in Bermuda can be high, although mid-August temperatures rarely exceed 30 °C (86 °F). The highest recorded temperature was 34 °C (93 °F) in August 1989. [17]

Bermuda is in the hurricane belt. Along the Gulf Stream, it is often directly in the path of hurricanes recurving in the westerlies, although they usually begin to weaken as they approach Bermuda, whose small size means that direct landfalls of hurricanes are rare. The most recent hurricanes to cause significant damage to Bermuda were category 2 Hurricane Gonzalo on 18 October 2014 and category 3 Hurricane Nicole on 14 October 2016, both of which struck the island directly. Before that, Hurricane Fabian on 5 September 2003 was the last major hurricane to hit Bermuda directly.

The only source of fresh water in Bermuda is rainfall, which is collected on roofs and catchments (or drawn from underground lenses) and stored in tanks. Each dwelling usually has at least one of these tanks forming part of its foundation. The law requires that each household collect rainwater that is piped down from the roof of each house. Average monthly rainfall is highest in October, at over 6 inches (150 mm), and lowest in April and May.

The average annual temperature of the Atlantic Ocean around Bermuda is 22.8 °C (73.0 °F), from 18.6 °C (65.5 °F) in February to 28.2 °C (82.8 °F) in August. [18]

Bermuda is on the same parallel as the Portuguese archipelago Madeira a few time zones farther east in the Atlantic. The two archipelagos are the only land in the Atlantic on the 32nd parallel north.

Climate data for Hamilton – capital of Bermuda
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.4
(77.7)
26.1
(79.0)
26.1
(79.0)
27.2
(81.0)
30
(86.0)
32.2
(90.0)
33.1
(91.6)
33.9
(93.0)
33.2
(91.8)
31.7
(89.0)
28.9
(84.0)
26.7
(80.0)
33.9
(93.0)
Average high °C (°F) 20.4
(68.7)
19.9
(67.8)
20.3
(68.6)
21.6
(70.8)
24.1
(75.4)
27
(80.6)
29.2
(84.6)
29.8
(85.7)
28.8
(83.8)
26.3
(79.4)
23.6
(74.5)
21.4
(70.6)
24.4
(75.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 18.2
(64.8)
17.7
(63.9)
18
(64.4)
19.3
(66.7)
22
(71.6)
24.9
(76.8)
26.7
(80.0)
27.2
(80.9)
26.2
(79.1)
23.9
(75.0)
21.2
(70.1)
19
(66.2)
22
(71.6)
Average low °C (°F) 16.1
(60.9)
15.5
(59.9)
15.7
(60.2)
16.9
(62.5)
19.9
(67.8)
22.8
(73.0)
24.1
(75.3)
24.5
(76.1)
23.5
(74.3)
21.4
(70.6)
18.7
(65.7)
16.5
(61.7)
19.6
(67.3)
Record low °C (°F) 7.8
(46.0)
6.7
(44.0)
7.2
(45.0)
8.9
(48.0)
12.8
(55.0)
17.8
(64.0)
20
(68.0)
20
(68.0)
18.9
(66.0)
14.4
(58.0)
12.4
(54.3)
10
(50.0)
6.7
(44.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 128.5
(5.06)
115.3
(4.54)
110
(4.33)
87.9
(3.46)
82.8
(3.26)
130.3
(5.13)
114.6
(4.51)
130.8
(5.15)
129.3
(5.09)
161.3
(6.35)
105.4
(4.15)
114.3
(4.50)
1,409.7
(55.5)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 inch) 17 15 15 12 10 12 13 14 15 16 13 17 171
Mean monthly sunshine hours 142.9 144.5 185.7 228.1 248.1 257.2 281.0 274.1 220.1 197.5 170.3 142.5 2,492
Source: Bermuda Weather Service (sun, 1999–2010) [18] [19]

Flora and fauna

Young Bermuda cedar at Ferry Reach

When discovered, Bermuda was uninhabited and mostly dominated by forests of Bermuda cedar, with mangrove marshes along its shores. Only 165 of the island's current 1,000 vascular plant species are considered native. Of those, 15, including the eponymous cedar, are endemic.

Settlers have introduced many species of palm trees to Bermuda. Coconut palms are found on Bermuda, making it the northernmost location for the natural growth of this species. However, the climate is usually too cool to allow the palms to properly set fruit.

The only indigenous mammals of Bermuda are five species of bats, all of which are also found in the eastern United States: Lasionycteris noctivagans, Lasiurus borealis, Lasiurus cinereus, Lasiurus seminolus and Perimyotis subflavus. [20] Other commonly known fauna of Bermuda include its national bird, the Bermuda petrel or cahow. It was rediscovered in 1951 after having been thought extinct since the 1620s. It is important as an example of a Lazarus species. The government has a programme to protect it, including restoration of a habitat area. The Bermuda rock skink was long thought to have been the only indigenous land vertebrate of Bermuda, discounting the marine turtles that lay their eggs on its beaches. Recently through genetic DNA studies, scientists have discovered that a species of turtle, the diamondback terrapin, previously thought to have been introduced, pre-dated the arrival of humans in the archipelago. [21] As this species spends most of its time in brackish ponds, some question whether it should be classified as a land vertebrate to compete with the skink's unique status.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Bermuda
Alemannisch: Bermuda
አማርኛ: ቤርሙዳ
Ænglisc: Bermuda
العربية: برمودا
aragonés: Bermudas
arpetan: Bèrmudes
asturianu: Les Bermudes
azərbaycanca: Bermud adaları
Bân-lâm-gú: Bermuda
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Бэрмудзкія астравы
bosanski: Bermudi
brezhoneg: Bermuda
català: Bermudes
čeština: Bermudy
Cymraeg: Bermuda
dansk: Bermuda
Deutsch: Bermuda
ދިވެހިބަސް: ބާމިއުޑާ
dolnoserbski: Bermudy
ཇོང་ཁ: བར་མུ་ཌ།
eesti: Bermuda
Ελληνικά: Βερμούδες
español: Bermudas
Esperanto: Bermudo
euskara: Bermuda
فارسی: برمودا
Fiji Hindi: Bermuda
føroyskt: Bermuda
français: Bermudes
Gaeilge: Beirmiúda
Gagauz: Bermuda
Gàidhlig: Bermuda
galego: Bermudas
한국어: 버뮤다
हिन्दी: बरमूडा
hrvatski: Bermudi
Ido: Bermuda
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: বারমুডা
Bahasa Indonesia: Bermuda
interlingua: Bermuda
íslenska: Bermúda
italiano: Bermuda
עברית: ברמודה
Basa Jawa: Bermuda
қазақша: Бермудалар
kernowek: Bermuda
Kinyarwanda: Berimuda
Kiswahili: Bermuda
Kreyòl ayisyen: Bermid
Kurdî: Bermûda
Latina: Bermuda
latviešu: Bermuda
Lëtzebuergesch: Bermuda
lietuvių: Bermuda
Ligure: Bermudda
Limburgs: Bermuda
lingála: Bermuda
magyar: Bermuda
македонски: Бермуда
Malagasy: Bermioda
മലയാളം: ബെർമുഡ
მარგალური: ბერმუდაშ კოკეფი
مصرى: برمودا
Bahasa Melayu: Bermuda
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Bermuda
Dorerin Naoero: Bermuda
Nederlands: Bermuda
नेपाली: बर्मुडा
norsk: Bermuda
norsk nynorsk: Bermuda
Nouormand: Bèrmude
Novial: Bermuda
occitan: Bermudas
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ବର୍ମୁଡା
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Bermuda orollari
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬਰਮੂਡਾ
پنجابی: برمودا
Plattdüütsch: Bermuda
polski: Bermudy
português: Bermudas
русиньскый: Бермуды
Scots: Bermuda
shqip: Bermuda
sicilianu: Bermuda
Simple English: Bermuda
سنڌي: برمودا
SiSwati: IBhemuda
slovenčina: Bermudy
slovenščina: Bermudi
Soomaaliga: Bermuda
کوردی: بەرموودا
српски / srpski: Бермуди
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bermudi
Basa Sunda: Bermuda
suomi: Bermuda
svenska: Bermuda
Tagalog: Bermuda
தமிழ்: பெர்முடா
татарча/tatarça: Бермуда утраулары
తెలుగు: బెర్ముడా
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏆᏊᏓ
Türkçe: Bermuda
اردو: برمودا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: بېرمۇدا
vèneto: Bermuda
Tiếng Việt: Bermuda
Winaray: Bermuda
Wolof: Bermuda
Yorùbá: Bẹ̀rmúdà
粵語: 百慕達
中文: 百慕大