View from the top of Gibb's Hill Lighthouse
Landsat 8 satellite image
Topographic map of Bermuda
Bermuda is a group of low-forming volcanoes in the
Atlantic Ocean, near the western edge of the
Sargasso Sea, roughly 578
nautical miles (1,070 km (665 mi)) east-southeast of
 on the
Outer Banks of
North Carolina and about 594 nautical miles (1,100 km (684 mi)) southeast of
Martha's Vineyard of
Massachusetts. It is 898 nautical miles (1,664 km (1,034 mi)) northeast of
Florida, and 667 nautical miles (1,236 km (768 mi)) from
Cape Sable Island, in
Nova Scotia, Canada. The islands lie due east of
South Carolina, west-northwest of
Cape Verde, southeast of
New York City,
New York, north-northwest of
Brazil and north of
The archipelago is formed by high points on the rim of the
caldera of a submarine volcano that forms a
seamount. The volcano is one part of a range that was formed as part of the same process that formed the floor of the Atlantic and the
Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The top of the seamount has gone through periods of complete submergence, during which its limestone cap was formed by marine organisms, and in the Ice Ages the entire caldera was above sea level, forming an island of approximately two hundred square miles.
It has 103 km (64 mi) of coastline. The two
municipalities in Bermuda are the
City of Hamilton and the
Town of St George. Bermuda is divided into nine parishes, which have some localities called villages, such as
Flatts Village and
Although usually referred to in the singular, the territory consists of 181 islands,
 with a total area of 53.3 square kilometres (20.6 square miles).
 The largest island is Main Island, sometimes called Bermuda. Eight of the larger islands are connected by bridges, and are the populated islands.
 Compiling a list of the islands is often complicated, as many have more than one name (as does the entire archipelago, which has also been known historically as La Garza, Virgineola, and the Isle of Devils. Somers Isles is often rendered "Somers Islands", or mistaken for "Summer Isles").
Despite the small land mass, place names are repeated: two islands named Long Island, three bays named Long Bay (on Somerset, Main, and Cooper's islands), two Horseshoe Bays (one in Southampton, on the Main Island, the other at Morgan's Point, formerly Tucker's Island), two roads through cuttings called Khyber Pass, one in Warwick, the other in St. George's Parish, and two
St George's Towns on
St George's Island in
St George's Parish, each known as St George's. There is a
Hamilton Parish in addition to the City of Hamilton in
Bermuda is divided into nine
parishes and two incorporated
Bermuda's nine parishes are:
Bermuda's two incorporated municipalities are:
Bermuda's two informal villages are:
Jones Village in Warwick, Cashew City (St. George's), Claytown (Hamilton), Middle Town (Pembroke), and
Tucker's Town (St. George's) are neighbourhoods; Dandy Town and North Village are sports clubs, and Harbour View Village is a small
public housing development.
One of Bermuda's pink-sand beaches at Astwood Park.
Bermuda's pink sand beaches and clear,
cerulean blue ocean waters are popular with tourists. Many of Bermuda's few hotels are located along the south shore of the island. In addition to its beaches, there are a number of sightseeing attractions. Historic St George's is a designated
World Heritage Site.
Scuba divers can explore numerous
coral reefs in relatively shallow water (typically 30–40 ft or 9–12 m in depth), with virtually unlimited visibility. Many nearby reefs are readily accessible from shore by
snorkellers, especially at
Bermuda's most popular visitor attraction is the Royal Naval Dockyard, which includes the Bermuda Maritime Museum. Other attractions include the
Bermuda Aquarium, Museum and Zoo,
 Bermuda Underwater Exploration Institute, the Botanical Gardens and
Masterworks Museum of Bermuda Art, lighthouses, and the Crystal Caves with
stalactites and underground saltwater pools. Admiralty House is another nice attraction where locals and visitors enjoy cliff diving into the beautiful blue water and where you are able to see Dockyard in the distance.
It is not possible to rent a car on the island; public transport and taxis are available or visitors can hire
scooters for use as private transport.
Residential scene in Bermuda
Bermuda has a
humid subtropical climate
Köppen Cfa). Bermuda is warmed by the nearby
Gulf Stream, and low latitude. The islands may experience modestly cooler temperatures in January, February, and March (average 63 °F (17 °C)).
 There has never been snow, a frost or freeze on record in Bermuda.
heat index in Bermuda can be high, although mid-August temperatures rarely exceed 30 °C (86 °F). The highest recorded temperature was 34 °C (93 °F) in August 1989.
Bermuda is in the
hurricane belt. Along the Gulf Stream, it is often directly in the path of hurricanes recurving in the westerlies, although they usually begin to weaken as they approach Bermuda, whose small size means that direct
landfalls of hurricanes are rare. The most recent hurricanes to cause significant damage to Bermuda were
Hurricane Gonzalo on 18 October 2014 and
Hurricane Nicole on 14 October 2016, both of which struck the island directly. Before that,
Hurricane Fabian on 5 September 2003 was the last major hurricane to hit Bermuda directly.
The only source of fresh water in Bermuda is rainfall, which is collected on roofs and catchments (or drawn from underground lenses) and stored in tanks. Each dwelling usually has at least one of these tanks forming part of its foundation. The law requires that each household collect rainwater that is piped down from the roof of each house. Average monthly rainfall is highest in October, at over 6 inches (150 mm), and lowest in April and May.
The average annual temperature of the Atlantic Ocean around Bermuda is 22.8 °C (73.0 °F), from 18.6 °C (65.5 °F) in February to 28.2 °C (82.8 °F) in August.
Bermuda is on the same parallel as the
Madeira a few time zones farther east in the Atlantic. The two archipelagos are the only land in the Atlantic on the
32nd parallel north.
|Climate data for Hamilton – capital of Bermuda
|Record high °C (°F)
|Average high °C (°F)
|Daily mean °C (°F)
|Average low °C (°F)
|Record low °C (°F)
precipitation mm (inches)
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 inch)
|Source: Bermuda Weather Service (sun, 1999–2010)
Flora and fauna
Young Bermuda cedar at Ferry Reach
When discovered, Bermuda was uninhabited and mostly dominated by forests of
Bermuda cedar, with
marshes along its shores. Only 165 of the island's current 1,000
vascular plant species are considered
native. Of those, 15, including the eponymous cedar, are
Settlers have introduced many species of palm trees to Bermuda.
Coconut palms are found on Bermuda, making it the northernmost location for the natural growth of this species. However, the climate is usually too cool to allow the palms to properly set fruit.
mammals of Bermuda are five species of bats, all of which are also found in the eastern United States:
Lasiurus seminolus and
 Other commonly known fauna of Bermuda include its national bird, the
Bermuda petrel or cahow. It was rediscovered in 1951 after having been thought extinct since the 1620s. It is important as an example of a
Lazarus species. The government has a programme to protect it, including restoration of a habitat area. The
Bermuda rock skink was long thought to have been the only indigenous land vertebrate of Bermuda, discounting the marine turtles that lay their eggs on its beaches. Recently through genetic DNA studies, scientists have discovered that a species of
diamondback terrapin, previously thought to have been introduced, pre-dated the arrival of humans in the archipelago.
 As this species spends most of its time in brackish ponds, some question whether it should be classified as a land vertebrate to compete with the skink's unique status.