Berlin

Berlin
State of Germany
Berlin Skyline Fernsehturm 02.jpg
Bikinihaus Berlin-1210760.jpg
Brandenburger Tor Nachts.JPG
East Side Gallery - Thierry Noir - 2011.jpg
3806 Berlin.JPG
Reichstag Berlin Germany.jpg
Flag of Berlin
Flag
Coat of arms of Berlin
Coat of arms
Deutschland Lage Berlins.svg
Coordinates: 52°31′00″N 13°23′20″E / 52°31′00″N 13°23′20″E / 52.51667; 13.38889
CountryGermany
Government
 • BodyAbgeordnetenhaus of Berlin
 • Governing MayorMichael Müller (SPD)
 • Governing partiesSPD / Left / Greens
 • Bundesrat votes4 (of 69)
Area
 • City891.7 km2 (344.3 sq mi)
Elevation34 m (112 ft)
Population (2017)[1]
 • City3,711,930
 • Density4,200/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
 • Metro6,004,857
Demonym(s)Berliner (m), Berlinerin (f)
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
Area code(s)030
ISO 3166 codeDE-BE
Vehicle registrationB[2]
GDP (nominal)€130/ $152 billion (2016)[3]
GDP per capita€35,600/ $41,900 (2015)
NUTS RegionDE3
Websiteberlin.de

Berlin (n/, German: [bɛɐ̯ˈliːn] (About this sound listen)) is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states. With a steadily growing population of approximately 3.7 million,[4] Berlin is the second most populous city proper in the European Union behind London and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union.[5] Located in northeastern Germany on the banks of the rivers Spree and Havel, it is the centre of the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, which has roughly 6 million residents.[6][7][8][9] Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers, canals and lakes.[10]

First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes,[11] Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1417–1701), the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918), the German Empire (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–1933) and the Third Reich (1933–1945).[12] Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world.[13] After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided; East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany, while West Berlin became a de facto West German exclave, surrounded by the Berlin Wall (1961–1989) and East German territory.[14] Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany.

Berlin is a world city of culture, politics, media and science.[15][16][17][18] Its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues.[19][20] Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a highly complex public transportation network. The metropolis is a popular tourist destination.[21] Significant industries also include IT, pharmaceuticals, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology, construction and electronics.

Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras, museums, and entertainment venues, and is host to many sporting events.[22] Its Zoological Garden is the most visited zoo in Europe and one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an increasingly popular location for international film productions.[23] The city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, nightlife, contemporary arts and a very high quality of living.[24] Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene.[25]

History

Etymology

Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River (Saxon or Thuringian) Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe (from their confluence onwards), the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was primarily inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes. This is why most of the cities and villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names (Germania Slavica). Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch. The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, and may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl- ("swamp").[26] Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär (bear), a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city. It is therefore a canting arm.

Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a (partly) Slavic-derived name: Pankow (the most populous), Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau (named Spandow until 1878). Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a (partly) Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Britz, Buch, Buckow, Gatow, Karow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Malchow, Marzahn, Pankow, Prenzlauer Berg, Rudow, Schmöckwitz, Spandau, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz, Tegel and Zehlendorf. The neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, and Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots.

12th to 16th centuries

Map of Berlin in 1688

The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from approximately 1192,[27] and remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte.[28] The first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century. Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920.[29] The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, and Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244.[27] 1237 is considered the founding date of the city.[30] The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, and profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod.[11] In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated.[31][32]

In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440.[33] During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, and subsequent members of the Hohenzollern family ruled in Berlin until 1918, first as electors of Brandenburg, then as kings of Prussia, and eventually as German emperors. In 1443, Frederick II Irontooth started the construction of a new royal palace in the twin city Berlin-Cölln. The protests of the town citizens against the building culminated in 1448, in the "Berlin Indignation" ("Berliner Unwille").[34][35] This protest was not successful and the citizenry lost many of its political and economic privileges. After the royal palace was finished in 1451, it gradually came into use. From 1470, with the new elector Albrecht III Achilles, Berlin-Cölln became the new royal residence.[32] Officially, the Berlin-Cölln palace became permanent residence of the Brandenburg electors of the Hohenzollerns from 1486, when John Cicero came to power.[36] Berlin-Cölln, however, had to give up its status as a free Hanseatic city. In 1539, the electors and the city officially became Lutheran.[37]

17th to 19th centuries

Frederick the Great (1712–1786) was one of Europe's enlightened monarchs.

The Thirty Years' War between 1618 and 1648 devastated Berlin. One third of its houses were damaged or destroyed, and the city lost half of its population.[38] Frederick William, known as the "Great Elector", who had succeeded his father George William as ruler in 1640, initiated a policy of promoting immigration and religious tolerance.[39] With the Edict of Potsdam in 1685, Frederick William offered asylum to the French Huguenots.[40] By 1700, approximately 30 percent of Berlin's residents were French, because of the Huguenot immigration.[41] Many other immigrants came from Bohemia, Poland, and Salzburg.[42]

Berlin became the capital of the German Empire in 1871 and expanded rapidly in the following years. (Unter den Linden in 1900)

Since 1618, the Margraviate of Brandenburg had been in personal union with the Duchy of Prussia. In 1701, the dual state formed the Kingdom of Prussia, as Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg, crowned himself as king Frederick I in Prussia. Berlin became the capital of the new Kingdom,[43] replacing Königsberg. This was a successful attempt to centralise the capital in the very far-flung state, and it was the first time the city began to grow. In 1709, Berlin merged with the four cities of Cölln, Friedrichswerder, Friedrichstadt and Dorotheenstadt under the name Berlin, "Haupt- und Residenzstadt Berlin".[31]

In 1740, Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great (1740–1786), came to power.[44] Under the rule of Frederick II, Berlin became a center of the Enlightenment, but also, was briefly occupied during the Seven Years' War by the Russian army.[45] Following France's victory in the War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon Bonaparte marched into Berlin in 1806, but granted self-government to the city.[46] In 1815, the city became part of the new Province of Brandenburg.[47]

The Industrial Revolution transformed Berlin during the 19th century; the city's economy and population expanded dramatically, and it became the main railway hub and economic centre of Germany. Additional suburbs soon developed and increased the area and population of Berlin. In 1861, neighbouring suburbs including Wedding, Moabit and several others were incorporated into Berlin.[48] In 1871, Berlin became capital of the newly founded German Empire.[49] In 1881, it became a city district separate from Brandenburg.[50]

20th to 21st centuries

Street, Berlin (1913) by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner

In the early 20th century, Berlin had become a fertile ground for the German Expressionist movement.[51] In fields such as architecture, painting and cinema new forms of artistic styles were invented. At the end of the First World War in 1918, a republic was proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building. In 1920, the Greater Berlin Act incorporated dozens of suburban cities, villages and estates around Berlin into an expanded city. The act increased the area of Berlin from 66 to 883 km2 (25 to 341 sq mi). The population almost doubled and Berlin had a population of around four million. During the Weimar era, Berlin underwent political unrest due to economic uncertainties, but also became a renowned centre of the Roaring Twenties. The metropolis experienced its heyday as a major world capital and was known for its leadership roles in science, technology, arts, the humanities, city planning, film, higher education, government and industries. Albert Einstein rose to public prominence during his years in Berlin, being awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921.

Berlin in ruins after the Second World War (Potsdamer Platz, 1945)

In 1933, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power. NSDAP rule diminished Berlin's Jewish community from 160,000 (one-third of all Jews in the country) to about 80,000 as a result of emigration between 1933 and 1939. After Kristallnacht in 1938, thousands of the city's Jews were imprisoned in the nearby Sachsenhausen concentration camp. Starting in early 1943, many were shipped to death camps, such as Auschwitz.[52] Berlin is the most heavily bombed city in history. The Allies dropped 67,607.3 tons of bombs on the city during World War II, destroyed 6,427 acres of the built up area of the city. During World War II, large parts of Berlin were destroyed in the 1943–45 air raids and during the Battle of Berlin. Around 125,000 civilians were killed.[53] After the end of the war in Europe in May 1945, Berlin received large numbers of refugees from the Eastern provinces. The victorious powers divided the city into four sectors, analogous to the occupation zones into which Germany was divided. The sectors of the Western Allies (the United States, the United Kingdom and France) formed West Berlin, while the Soviet sector formed East Berlin.[54]

The Berlin Wall (painted on the western side) was a barrier that divided the city from 1961 to 1989.

All four Allies shared administrative responsibilities for Berlin. However, in 1948, when the Western Allies extended the currency reform in the Western zones of Germany to the three western sectors of Berlin, the Soviet Union imposed a blockade on the access routes to and from West Berlin, which lay entirely inside Soviet-controlled territory. The Berlin airlift, conducted by the three western Allies, overcame this blockade by supplying food and other supplies to the city from June 1948 to May 1949.[55] In 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany was founded in West Germany and eventually included all of the American, British and French zones, excluding those three countries' zones in Berlin, while the Marxist-Leninist German Democratic Republic was proclaimed in East Germany. West Berlin officially remained an occupied city, but it politically was aligned with the Federal Republic of Germany despite West Berlin's geographic isolation. Airline service to West Berlin was granted only to American, British and French airlines.

The fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989. On 3 October 1990, the German reunification process was formally finished.

The founding of the two German states increased Cold War tensions. West Berlin was surrounded by East German territory, and East Germany proclaimed the Eastern part as its capital, a move that was not recognised by the western powers. East Berlin included most of the historic centre of the city. The West German government established itself in Bonn.[56] In 1961, East Germany began the building of the Berlin Wall between East and West Berlin, and events escalated to a tank standoff at Checkpoint Charlie. West Berlin was now de facto a part of West Germany with a unique legal status, while East Berlin was de facto a part of East Germany. John F. Kennedy gave his "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech in 1963, underlining the US support for the Western part of the city. Berlin was completely divided. Although it was possible for Westerners to pass to the other side through strictly controlled checkpoints, for most Easterners travel to West Berlin or West Germany was prohibited by the government of East Germany. In 1971, a Four-Power agreement guaranteed access to and from West Berlin by car or train through East Germany.[57]

In 1989, with the end of the Cold War and pressure from the East German population, the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November and was subsequently mostly demolished. Today, the East Side Gallery preserves a large portion of the wall. On 3 October 1990, the two parts of Germany were reunified as the Federal Republic of Germany and Berlin again became the official German capital. In 1991, the German Parliament, the Bundestag, voted to move the seat of the German capital from Bonn to Berlin, which was completed in 1999. On 18 June 1994, soldiers from the United States, France and Britain marched in a parade which was part of the ceremonies to mark the final withdrawal of foreign troops allowing a reunified Berlin.[58] Berlin's 2001 administrative reform merged several districts. The number of boroughs was reduced from 23 to 12.

In 2002, the German parliament voted to allow the reconstruction of the Berlin Palace, which started in 2013 and will be finished in 2019. In 2006, the FIFA World Cup Final was held in Berlin.

In a 2016 terrorist attack linked to ISIL, a truck was deliberately driven into the Christmas market next to the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church, leaving 12 people dead and 56 others injured.

Other Languages
Acèh: Berlin
Адыгэбзэ: Берлин
адыгабзэ: Берлин
Afrikaans: Berlyn
Akan: Berlin
Alemannisch: Berlin
አማርኛ: በርሊን
Ænglisc: Berlin
Аҧсшәа: Берлин
العربية: برلين
aragonés: Berlín
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܒܪܠܝܢ
arpetan: Bèrlin
asturianu: Berlín
Avañe'ẽ: Berlin
авар: Берлин
Aymar aru: Berlin
azərbaycanca: Berlin
تۆرکجه: برلین
bamanankan: Berlin
বাংলা: বার্লিন
Bân-lâm-gú: Berlin
башҡортса: Берлин
беларуская: Берлін
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Бэрлін
Bikol Central: Berlin
Bislama: Berlin
български: Берлин
Boarisch: Berlin
བོད་ཡིག: པེར་ལིན།
bosanski: Berlin
brezhoneg: Berlin
буряад: Берлин
català: Berlín
Чӑвашла: Берлин
Cebuano: Berlin
čeština: Berlín
Chamoru: Berlin
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Berlín
Chi-Chewa: Berlin
chiTumbuka: Berlin
corsu: Berlinu
Cymraeg: Berlin
dansk: Berlin
davvisámegiella: Berlin
Deitsch: Berlin
Deutsch: Berlin
dolnoserbski: Barliń
eesti: Berliin
Ελληνικά: Βερολίνο
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Berlîṅ
эрзянь: Берлин ош
español: Berlín
Esperanto: Berlino
estremeñu: Berlín
euskara: Berlin
eʋegbe: Berlin
فارسی: برلین
Fiji Hindi: Berlin
føroyskt: Berlin
français: Berlin
Frysk: Berlyn
Fulfulde: Berlin
furlan: Berlin
Gaeilge: Beirlín
Gaelg: Berleen
Gagauz: Berlin
Gàidhlig: Berlin
galego: Berlín
贛語: 柏林
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Berlin
한국어: 베를린
Hausa: Berlin
Hawaiʻi: Pelelina
Հայերեն: Բեռլին
हिन्दी: बर्लिन
hornjoserbsce: Berlin
hrvatski: Berlin
Ido: Berlin
Ilokano: Berlin
Bahasa Indonesia: Berlin
interlingua: Berlin
Interlingue: Berlin
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐱᕐᓖᓐ
Ирон: Берлин
isiXhosa: I-Berlin
isiZulu: IBerlini
íslenska: Berlín
italiano: Berlino
עברית: ברלין
Basa Jawa: Berlin
kalaallisut: Berlin
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಬರ್ಲಿನ್
Kapampangan: Berlin
ქართული: ბერლინი
kaszëbsczi: Berlëno
қазақша: Берлин
kernowek: Berlin
Kinyarwanda: Berlin
Kirundi: Berlin
Kiswahili: Berlin
коми: Берлин
Kongo: Berlin
Kreyòl ayisyen: Bèlen
kurdî: Berlîn
Кыргызча: Берлин
кырык мары: Берлин
Ladino: Berlin
лезги: Берлин
لۊری شومالی: برلین
latgaļu: Berlins
Latina: Berolinum
latviešu: Berlīne
Lëtzebuergesch: Berlin
lietuvių: Berlynas
Ligure: Berlin
Limburgs: Berlien
lingála: Berlin
Livvinkarjala: Berlin
la .lojban.: berlin
Luganda: Berlin
lumbaart: Berlin
magyar: Berlin
मैथिली: बर्लिन
македонски: Берлин
Malagasy: Berlin
മലയാളം: ബെർലിൻ
Malti: Berlin
Māori: Pearīni
मराठी: बर्लिन
მარგალური: ბერლინი
مصرى: بيرلين
مازِرونی: برلین
Bahasa Melayu: Berlin
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Berlin
Mirandés: Berlin
монгол: Берлин
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဘာလင်မြို့
Dorerin Naoero: Berlin
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Berlin
Nederlands: Berlijn
Nedersaksies: Berlien
नेपाली: बर्लिन
नेपाल भाषा: बर्लिन
日本語: ベルリン
Napulitano: Berlino
нохчийн: Берлин
Nordfriisk: Berlin/sö
Norfuk / Pitkern: Berlin
norsk: Berlin
norsk nynorsk: Berlin
Nouormand: Bèrlîn
Novial: Berlin
occitan: Berlin
олык марий: Берлин
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ବର୍ଲିନ
Oromoo: Barliin
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Berlin
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬਰਲਿਨ
Pälzisch: Berlin
پنجابی: برلن
Papiamentu: Berlin
پښتو: برلين
Patois: Boerlin
Перем Коми: Берлин
Picard: Berlin
Piemontèis: Berlin
Tok Pisin: Berlin
Plattdüütsch: Berlin
polski: Berlin
Ποντιακά: Βερολίνον
português: Berlim
Qaraqalpaqsha: Berlin
qırımtatarca: Berlin
reo tahiti: Berlin
Ripoarisch: Berlin
română: Berlin
Romani: Berlin
rumantsch: Berlin
Runa Simi: Berlin
русиньскый: Берлін
русский: Берлин
саха тыла: Берлин
Gagana Samoa: Perelini
संस्कृतम्: बर्लिन
sardu: Berlino
Scots: Berlin
Seeltersk: Berlin
Sesotho: Berlin
shqip: Berlini
sicilianu: Birlinu
සිංහල: බර්ලිනය
Simple English: Berlin
slovenčina: Berlín
slovenščina: Berlin
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Бєрлинъ
ślůnski: Berlin
Soomaaliga: Baarliin
کوردی: بەرلین
Sranantongo: Berlin
српски / srpski: Берлин
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Berlin
suomi: Berliini
svenska: Berlin
Tagalog: Berlin
தமிழ்: பெர்லின்
Taqbaylit: Berlin
tarandíne: Berline
татарча/tatarça: Берлин
తెలుగు: బెర్లిన్
tetun: Berlín
ትግርኛ: በረሊን
тоҷикӣ: Берлин
Türkçe: Berlin
Türkmençe: Berlin
Twi: Berlin
удмурт: Берлин
українська: Берлін
اردو: برلن
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Bérlin
vèneto: Berlin
vepsän kel’: Berlin
Tiếng Việt: Berlin
Volapük: Berlin
Võro: Berliin
文言: 柏林
West-Vlams: Berlyn
Winaray: Berlin
Wolof: Berlin
吴语: 柏林
ייִדיש: בערלין
Yorùbá: Berlin
粵語: 柏林
Zazaki: Berlin
Zeêuws: Berlijn
žemaitėška: Berlīns
中文: 柏林
डोटेली: बर्लिन
ГӀалгӀай: Берлин
Kabɩyɛ: Pɛrɩlɛɛ
Lingua Franca Nova: Berlin