Benjamin Harrison

Benjamin Harrison
Pach Brothers - Benjamin Harrison.jpg
23rd President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1889 – March 4, 1893
Vice PresidentLevi P. Morton
Preceded byGrover Cleveland
Succeeded byGrover Cleveland
United States Senator
from Indiana
In office
March 4, 1881 – March 3, 1887
Preceded byJoseph McDonald
Succeeded byDavid Turpie
Personal details
Born(1833-08-20)August 20, 1833
North Bend, Ohio, U.S.
DiedMarch 13, 1901(1901-03-13) (aged 67)
Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.
Cause of deathPneumonia
Resting placeCrown Hill Cemetery
Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.
Political partyRepublican (1856–1901)
Other political
affiliations
Whig Party (before 1856)
Spouse(s)
Children
ParentsJohn Scott Harrison
Elizabeth Ramsey
Education
Profession
SignatureCursive signature in ink
Military service
Allegiance United States
Service/branchSeal of the United States Board of War and Ordnance.svg United States Army
Years of service1862–1865
RankUnion Army colonel rank insignia.png Colonel
Union Army brigadier general rank insignia.svg Brevet brigadier general
UnitArmy of the Cumberland
Commands
Battles/warsAmerican Civil War

Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 23rd President of the United States from 1889 to 1893. He was a grandson of the ninth president, William Henry Harrison, creating the only grandfather–grandson duo to have held the office. He was also the great-grandson of Benjamin Harrison V, a founding father. Before ascending to the presidency, Harrison established himself as a prominent local attorney, Presbyterian church leader, and politician in Indianapolis, Indiana. During the American Civil War, he served in the Union Army as a colonel, and was confirmed by the U.S. Senate as a brevet brigadier general of volunteers in 1865. Harrison unsuccessfully ran for governor of Indiana in 1876. The Indiana General Assembly elected Harrison to a six-year term in the U.S. Senate, where he served from 1881 to 1887.

A Republican, Harrison was elected to the presidency in 1888, defeating the Democratic incumbent, Grover Cleveland. Hallmarks of Harrison's administration included unprecedented economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff, which imposed historic protective trade rates, and the Sherman Antitrust Act. Harrison also facilitated the creation of the national forest reserves through an amendment to the Land Revision Act of 1891. During his administration six western states were admitted to the Union. In addition, Harrison substantially strengthened and modernized the U.S. Navy and conducted an active foreign policy, but his proposals to secure federal education funding as well as voting rights enforcement for African Americans were unsuccessful.

Due in large part to surplus revenues from the tariffs, federal spending reached one billion dollars for the first time during his term. The spending issue in part led to the defeat of the Republicans in the 1890 mid-term elections. Cleveland defeated Harrison for re-election in 1892, due to the growing unpopularity of the high tariff and high federal spending. Harrison returned to private life and his law practice in Indianapolis. In 1899 Harrison represented the Republic of Venezuela in their British Guiana boundary dispute against the United Kingdom. Harrison traveled to the court of Paris as part of the case and after a brief stay returned to Indianapolis. He died at his home in Indianapolis in 1901 of complications from influenza. Although many have praised Harrison's commitment to African Americans' voting rights, scholars and historians generally regard his administration as below-average, and rank him in the bottom half among U.S. presidents. Historians, however, have not questioned Harrison's commitment to personal and official integrity.

Family and education

John Scott Harrison

Benjamin Harrison was born on August 20, 1833, in North Bend, Ohio, the second of Elizabeth Ramsey (Irwin) and John Scott Harrison's eight children. His paternal ancestors were the Harrison family of Virginia, whose immigrant ancestor, Benjamin Harrison I, arrived in Jamestown, Virginia, circa 1630.

The future President Benjamin Harrison was a grandson of U.S. President William Henry Harrison, the first governor of the Indiana Territory, and a great-grandson of Benjamin Harrison V, a Virginia planter who signed the Declaration of Independence and succeeded Thomas Jefferson as governor of Virginia.[1][2][3][a]

Harrison was seven years old when his grandfather was elected U.S. president, but he did not attend the inauguration.[4] Although Harrison's family was distinguished, his parents were not wealthy. John Scott Harrison, a two-term U.S. congressman from Ohio, spent much of his farm income on his children's education.[5][6] Despite the family's modest resources, Harrison's boyhood was enjoyable, much of it spent outdoors fishing or hunting.[7]

Coat of Arms of Benjamin Harrison

Benjamin Harrison's early schooling took place in a log cabin near his home,[8] but his parents later arranged for a tutor to help him with college preparatory studies.[9] Fourteen-year-old Harrison and his older brother, Irwin, enrolled in Farmer's College near Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1847.[10] He attended the college for two years [11][b] and while there met his future wife, Caroline "Carrie" Lavinia Scott, a daughter of John Witherspoon Scott, the school's science professor who was also a Presbyterian minister.[12]

In 1850, Harrison transferred to Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, and graduated in 1852.[13][14] He joined the Phi Delta Theta fraternity, which he used as a network for much of his life. He was also a member of Delta Chi, a law fraternity which permitted dual membership.[15] Classmates included John Alexander Anderson,[16] who became a six-term U.S. congressman, and Whitelaw Reid, Harrison's vice presidential running mate in 1892. At Miami, Harrison was strongly influenced by history and political economy professor Robert Hamilton Bishop.[17] Harrison also joined a Presbyterian church at college and, like his mother, became a lifelong Presbyterian.[18]

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Bencamin Harrison
Bân-lâm-gú: Benjamin Harrison
беларуская: Бенджамін Гарысан
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Бэнджамін Гарысан
Bikol Central: Benjamin Harrison
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interlingua: Benjamin Harrison
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مازِرونی: بنیامین هریسون
Bahasa Melayu: Benjamin Harrison
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Benjamin Harrison
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português: Benjamin Harrison
Simple English: Benjamin Harrison
slovenčina: Benjamin Harrison
slovenščina: Benjamin Harrison
српски / srpski: Бенџамин Харисон
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Benjamin Harrison
Tiếng Việt: Benjamin Harrison