romanized as Peking,
 is the capital of the
People's Republic of China, the world's
second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city. The city, located in
northern China, is governed as a
direct-controlled municipality under the
national government with
16 urban, suburban, and rural districts.
 Beijing Municipality is surrounded by
Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring
Tianjin Municipality to the southeast; together the three divisions form the
metropolitan region and the
national capital region of China.
As a city combining both modern and traditional
architecture, Beijing is a
megacity rich in
history, exemplified in its global influence in
technology. Beijing is the second largest Chinese city by
urban population after
Shanghai and is the nation's
 It is home to the headquarters of most of
China's largest state-owned companies and is a
major hub for the
high-speed rail networks. The
Beijing Capital International Airport has been the
second busiest in the world by passenger traffic since 2010,
 and, as of 2016 , the city's
subway network is the
second longest in the world, after
Shanghai's subway system.
city's history dates back three
millennia. As the last of the
Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, Beijing has been the political center of the country for much of the past eight centuries.
 With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the
old inner and outer city walls, Beijing was strategically poised and developed to be the residence of the
emperor and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital. Beijing was the
largest city in the world by population for much of the
second millennium A.D.
 The city is renowned for its opulent palaces, temples, parks, gardens, tombs,
walls and gates.
 Its art treasures and universities have made it center of culture and art in China.
Encyclopædia Britannica notes that "few cities in the world have served for so long as the political headquarters and cultural centre of an area as immense as China."
 Beijing has
World Heritage Sites – the
Temple of Heaven,
Zhoukoudian, as well as parts of the
Great Wall and the
Grand Canal, all popular locations for tourism.
Siheyuans, the city's traditional housing style, and
hutongs, the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are major tourist attractions and are common in urban Beijing. The city hosted the
2008 Summer Olympics and was chosen to host the
2022 Winter Olympics, making it the first city to ever host both Winter and Summer Olympics.
Beijing's 91 universities
 consistently rank among the best in China, of which
Peking University and
Tsinghua University are ranked in the top 60 universities of the world.
 In 2015, 52 companies of the
Fortune Global 500 company headquarters were located in Beijing, more than any other city in the world,
 including state-owned enterprises
China National Petroleum, and
Sinopec Group, ranked 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, respectively.
Beijing CBD is quickly becoming the center for
Beijing's economic expansion, rapid modernization, and radically changing skyline, with the ongoing or recently completed construction of multiple
Zhongguancun area is also known as China's
Silicon Valley and China's center of innovation and technology entrepreneurship.
 According to the 2016 InterNations Expat Insider Survey, Beijing ranked first in Asia in the subcategory "Personal Finance Index," a measure of
expats' salaries versus
cost of living in the city.
 Expats live primarily in urban districts such as
Chaoyang in the east, or in suburban districts such as
Over the past 3,000 years, the city of Beijing has had
numerous other names. The name Beijing, which means "Northern Capital" (from the
Chinese characters 北 for north and 京 for capital), was applied to the city in 1403 during the
Ming dynasty to distinguish the city from
Nanjing (the "Southern Capital").
 The English spelling is based on the
romanization of the two characters as they are pronounced in
Standard Mandarin. An older English spelling, Peking, is the
postal romanization of the same two characters as they are pronounced in
Chinese dialects spoken in the southern port towns first visited by European traders and missionaries.
 Those dialects preserve the
Middle Chinese pronunciation of 京 as kjaeng,
 prior to a phonetic shift in the northern dialects to the modern pronunciation.
 Although Peking is no longer the common name for the city, some of the city's older locations and facilities, such as
Beijing Capital International Airport, with
IATA Code PEK, and
Peking University, still use the former romanization.
The single Chinese character abbreviation for Beijing is
京, which appears on automobile license plates in the city. The official
abbreviation for Beijing is "BJ".
беларуская (тарашкевіца): Пэкін
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Pekín
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Peking