Beijing

Beijing
北京市
Municipality
Clockwise from top: Beijing CBD skyline, Tiananmen, Temple of Heaven, National Center for the Performing Arts, and Beijing National Stadium
Location of Beijing Municipality within China
Location of Beijing Municipality within China
Coordinates: 39°55′N 116°23′E / 39°55′N 116°23′E / 39.917; 116.383
CountryPeople's Republic of China
Established date1045 BCE (Zhou Dynasty)
Divisions[1]
 - County-level
 - Township-level

16 districts
289 towns and villages
Government
 • TypeMunicipality
 • Party SecretaryCai Qi
 • MayorChen Jining
 • Congress ChairmanLi Wei
 • Conference ChairmanJi Lin
Area[2]
 • Municipality16,411 km2 (6,336 sq mi)
 • Land16,801 km2 (6,487 sq mi)
 • Urban (2018)[3]4,144 km2 (1,600 sq mi)
 • Rural15,042 km2 (5,808 sq mi)
Elevation43.5 m (142.7 ft)
Population (2017)[4]
 • Municipality21,707,000
 • Density1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)
 • Urban (2018)[5]21,250,000
 • Metro (2017)[6]24,000,000
 • Ranks in ChinaPopulation: 27th;
Density: 4th
Major ethnic groups
 • Han95%
 • Manchu2%
 • Hui2%
 • Mongol0.3%
 • Other0.7%
Time zoneUTC+8 (CST)
Postal code100000–102629
Area code(s)10
ISO 3166 codeCN-BJ
GDP(nominal)[7]2017
 - Total¥2.80 trillion
($414.71 billion)
(12th)
 - Per capita¥128,927 ($19,895) (1st)
 - GrowthIncrease 6.7%
HDI (2014)0.869[8] (1st)—very high
License plate prefixes京A, C, E, F, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, Y
京B (taxis)
京G (outside urban area)
京O, D (police and authorities)
AbbreviationBJ / (jīng)
City treesChinese arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis)
 Pagoda tree (Sophora japonica)
City flowersChina rose (Rosa chinensis)
 Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium)
WebsiteBeijing Official Website International - eBeijing.gov.cn (in English) 首都之窗-北京市政务门户网站 (in Chinese)
Beijing
Beijing name.svg
"Běijīng" in regular Chinese characters
Chinese北京
Hanyu PinyinAbout this sound [[:Media:Beijing pronunciation.ogg|Běijīng]]
PostalPeking[9]
Peiping (1368–1403; 1928–1937; 1945–1949)
Literal meaning"Northern Capital"

Beijing (ŋ/;[10]Mandarin: [pèi.tɕíŋ] (About this sound listen)), formerly romanized as Peking,[11] is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, and most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of central government with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts.[12] Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast; together the three divisions form the Jingjinji metropolitan region and the national capital region of China.[13]

Beijing is an important capital and global power city, and one of the world's leading centers for politics, economy and business, finance, education, culture, innovation and technology, architecture, language, and diplomacy. A megacity, Beijing is the second largest Chinese city by urban population after Shanghai and is the nation's political, cultural, and educational center.[14] It is home to the headquarters of most of China's largest state-owned companies and houses the largest number of Fortune Global 500 companies in the world, as well as the world's four biggest financial institutions.[15][16] It is also a major hub for the national highway, expressway, railway, and high-speed rail networks. The Beijing Capital International Airport has been the second busiest in the world by passenger traffic since 2010,[17] and, as of 2016, the city's subway network is the busiest and second longest in the world.

Combining both modern and traditional architecture, Beijing is one of the oldest cities in the world, with a rich history dating back three millennia. As the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, Beijing has been the political center of the country for most of the past eight centuries,[18] and was the largest city in the world by population for much of the second millennium A.D.[19] Encyclopædia Britannica notes that "few cities in the world have served for so long as the political headquarters and cultural center of an area as immense as China."[20] With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the old inner and outer city walls, Beijing was strategically poised and developed to be the residence of the emperor and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital. The city is renowned for its opulent palaces, temples, parks, gardens, tombs, walls and gates.[21] It has seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites – the Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven, Summer Palace, Ming Tombs, Zhoukoudian, and parts of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal – all popular locations for tourism.[22] Siheyuans, the city's traditional housing style, and hutongs, the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are major tourist attractions and are common in urban Beijing.

Many of Beijing's 91 universities[23] consistently rank among the best in China, among which Peking University and Tsinghua University are ranked in the top 60 universities of the world.[24] Beijing CBD is a center for Beijing's economic expansion, with the ongoing or recently completed construction of multiple skyscrapers. Beijing's Zhongguancun area is known as China's Silicon Valley and a center of innovation and technology entrepreneurship.

Etymology

Over the past 3,000 years, the city of Beijing has had numerous other names. The name Beijing, which means "Northern Capital" (from the Chinese characters for north and for capital), was applied to the city in 1403 during the Ming dynasty to distinguish the city from Nanjing (the "Southern Capital").[25] The English spelling is based on the pinyin romanization of the two characters as they are pronounced in Standard Mandarin. An older English spelling, Peking, is the postal romanization of the same two characters as they are pronounced in Chinese dialects spoken in the southern port towns first visited by European traders and missionaries.[26] Those dialects preserve the Middle Chinese pronunciation of as kjaeng,[27] prior to a phonetic shift in the northern dialects to the modern pronunciation.[28] Although Peking is no longer the common name for the city, some of the city's older locations and facilities, such as Beijing Capital International Airport, with IATA Code PEK, and Peking University, still use the former romanization.

The single Chinese character abbreviation for Beijing is , which appears on automobile license plates in the city. The official Latin alphabet abbreviation for Beijing is "BJ".[29]

Other Languages
Acèh: Beijing
адыгабзэ: Пекин
Afrikaans: Beijing
Alemannisch: Peking
አማርኛ: ቤዪጂንግ
Ænglisc: Beicing
العربية: بكين
aragonés: Pequín
arpetan: Pèquin
অসমীয়া: বেইজিং
asturianu: Beixín
Avañe'ẽ: Pekĩ
Aymar aru: Pekin
azərbaycanca: Pekin
تۆرکجه: پکن
bamanankan: Beijing
বাংলা: বেইজিং
Bahasa Banjar: Péycing
Bân-lâm-gú: Pak-kiaⁿ-chhī
башҡортса: Пекин
беларуская: Пекін
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Пэкін
भोजपुरी: बीजिंग
Bikol Central: Pekin
Bislama: Beijing
български: Пекин
Boarisch: Peking
bosanski: Peking
brezhoneg: Beijing
буряад: Бээжэн
català: Pequín
Чӑвашла: Пекин
Cebuano: Pekin
čeština: Peking
Chamoru: Beijing
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Pekín
Chi-Chewa: Beijing
chiShona: Beijing
Cymraeg: Beijing
dansk: Beijing
davvisámegiella: Peking
Deitsch: Beijing
Deutsch: Peking
ދިވެހިބަސް: ބީޖިންގ
dolnoserbski: Peking
eesti: Peking
Ελληνικά: Πεκίνο
эрзянь: Пекин ош
español: Pekín
Esperanto: Pekino
estremeñu: Pequín
euskara: Pekin
فارسی: پکن
Fiji Hindi: Beijing
føroyskt: Beijing
français: Pékin
Frysk: Peking
Gaeilge: Béising
Gaelg: Beijing
Gàidhlig: Beijing
galego: Pequín
贛語: 北京
Gĩkũyũ: Beijing
ગુજરાતી: પેઇચિંગ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Pet-kîn
한국어: 베이징 시
Hausa: Beijing
Hawaiʻi: Beijing
հայերեն: Պեկին
हिन्दी: बीजिंग
hornjoserbsce: Peking
hrvatski: Peking
Ido: Beijing
Ilokano: Beijing
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: বেইজিং
Bahasa Indonesia: Beijing
interlingua: Beijing
Interlingue: Beijing
Ирон: Пекин
isiZulu: Beijing
íslenska: Beijing
italiano: Pechino
עברית: בייג'ינג
Basa Jawa: Beijing
kalaallisut: Beijing
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಬೀಜಿಂಗ್
Kapampangan: Beijing
ქართული: პეკინი
қазақша: Бейжің
kernowek: Beijing
Kiswahili: Beijing
коми: Пекин
Kreyòl ayisyen: Peken
kurdî: Beijing
Кыргызча: Пекин
Ladino: Peking
лезги: Пекин
لۊری شومالی: پئکأن
Latina: Pechinum
latviešu: Pekina
Lëtzebuergesch: Peking
lietuvių: Pekinas
Ligure: Pechin
Limburgs: Peking
lingála: Beijíng
la .lojban.: beidjin
lumbaart: Pechin
magyar: Peking
मैथिली: बेइजिङ
македонски: Пекинг
Malagasy: Beijing
Māori: Beijing
मराठी: पेकिंग
მარგალური: პეკინი
مصرى: بيكين
مازِرونی: پکن
Bahasa Melayu: Beijing
Baso Minangkabau: Beijing
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Báe̤k-gĭng
Mirandés: Pequin
монгол: Бээжин
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ပေကျင်းမြို့
Dorerin Naoero: Beijing
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Beijig
Nederlands: Peking
नेपाली: बेइजिङ
नेपाल भाषा: बेइजिङ
日本語: 北京市
нохчийн: Пекин
Nordfriisk: Peking
Norfuk / Pitkern: Beijing
norsk: Beijing
norsk nynorsk: Beijing
Nouormand: Péqùin
Novial: Beyjing
occitan: Pequin
олык марий: Пекин
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ବେଜିଂ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Pekin
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬੀਜਿੰਗ
پنجابی: بیجنگ
Papiamentu: Bejing
پښتو: بېجنگ
Patois: Biejing
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ប៉េកាំង
Picard: Pékin
Piemontèis: Pechin
Tok Pisin: Beijing
polski: Pekin
português: Pequim
Qaraqalpaqsha: Pekin
qırımtatarca: Pekin
română: Beijing
Runa Simi: Pikkin
русиньскый: Пекінґ
русский: Пекин
саха тыла: Пекин
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱵᱮᱡᱤᱝ
संस्कृतम्: बीजिङ्ग्
sardu: Beijing
Scots: Beijing
Seeltersk: Peking
Setswana: Beijing
shqip: Pekini
sicilianu: Pechinu
සිංහල: බෙයිජිං
Simple English: Beijing
slovenčina: Peking
slovenščina: Peking
ślůnski: Bejdżing
Soomaaliga: Beijing
کوردی: پێکەن
Sranantongo: Beijing
српски / srpski: Пекинг
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Peking
Basa Sunda: Béijing
suomi: Peking
svenska: Peking
Tagalog: Beijing
தமிழ்: பெய்ஜிங்
Taqbaylit: Pekin
tarandíne: Pechine
татарча/tatarça: Ханбалык
తెలుగు: బీజింగ్
тоҷикӣ: Пекин
lea faka-Tonga: Beijing
Tsetsêhestâhese: Beijing
Türkçe: Pekin
Türkmençe: Pekin
Twi: Beijing
українська: Пекін
اردو: بیجنگ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: بېيجىڭ شەھىرى
Vahcuengh: Baekging
vèneto: Pechin
vepsän kel’: Pekin
Tiếng Việt: Bắc Kinh
Volapük: Beycing
Võro: Peking
walon: Pekin
文言: 北京市
Winaray: Beijing
Wolof: Beijing
吴语: 北京
ייִדיש: בייזשינג
Yorùbá: Beijing
粵語: 北京
Zazaki: Pekin
Zeêuws: Peking
žemaitėška: Pekėns
中文: 北京市
डोटेली: बेइजिङ
ГӀалгӀай: Пекин
Kabɩyɛ: Peekɛɛ