Bavaria

Free State of Bavaria

Freistaat Bayern
Anthem: Bayernhymne  (German)
"Hymn of Bavaria"
Coordinates: 48°46′39″N 11°25′52″E / 48°46′39″N 11°25′52″E / 48.77750; 11.43111
CountryGermany
CapitalMunich
Government
 • BodyLandtag of Bavaria
 • Minister-PresidentMarkus Söder (CSU – Christian Social Union of Bavaria)
 • Governing partiesCSU / FW
 • Bundesrat votes6 (of 69)
Area
 • Total70,550.19 km2 (27,239.58 sq mi)
Population
 (2018-12-31)[1]
 • Total13,076,721
 • Density185/km2 (480/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Bavarian(s) (English)
Bayer (m), Bayerin (f) (German)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeDE-BY
GDP (nominal)€625 billion (2018)[2]
GDP per capita€47,946 (2018)
NUTS RegionDE2
HDI (2017)0.944[3]
very high · bayern.de

Bavaria (ə/; German and Bavarian: Bayern [ˈbaɪɐn]), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: Freistaat Bayern [ˈfʁaɪʃtaːt ˈbaɪɐn]), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres (27,200 sq mi), Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Munich (its capital and largest city and also the third largest city in Germany[4]), Nuremberg and Augsburg.

The history of Bavaria includes its earliest settlement by Iron Age Celtic tribes, followed by the conquests of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC, when the territory was incorporated into the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. It became a stem duchy in the 6th century AD following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. It was later incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire, became an independent kingdom, joined the Prussian-led German Empire in 1871 while retaining its title of kingdom, and finally became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949.[5]

The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century AD, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire. The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918, when Bavaria became a republic. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria reorganized itself on democratic lines after the Second World War.

Bavaria has a unique culture, largely because of the state's former Catholic majority and conservative traditions.[6] Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes a language, cuisine, architecture, festivals such as Oktoberfest and elements of Alpine symbolism.[7] The state also has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, giving it a status as a rather wealthy German region.[8]

Modern Bavaria also includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia.

History

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
18403,802,515—    
18714,292,484+0.39%
19005,414,831+0.80%
19106,451,380+1.77%
19397,084,086+0.32%
19509,184,466+2.39%
19619,515,479+0.32%
197010,479,386+1.08%
198710,902,643+0.23%
201112,397,614+0.54%
201813,076,721+0.76%
source:[9] 2018 data[1]
Prehistoric Heunischenburg, in the vicinity of Kronach

Antiquity

The Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps, previously inhabited by Celts, which had been part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German, but, unlike other Germanic groups, they probably did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by the Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century. These peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Marcomanni, Allemanni, Quadi, Thuringians, Goths, Scirians, Rugians, Heruli. The name "Bavarian" ("Baiuvarii") means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and later of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520. A 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BC.[10]

Middle Ages

From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III who was deposed by Charlemagne.[11]

Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555. Their daughter, Theodelinde, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616.[12]

After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onward, he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy. (It is unclear what Bavarian religious life consisted of before this time.) His son, Theudebert, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, and married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was divided among his sons, but reunited under his grandson Hugbert.

The Kingdom of Bavaria in 900
Bavaria in the 10th century

At Hugbert's death (735) the duchy passed to a distant relative named Odilo, from neighboring Alemannia (modern southwest Germany and northern Switzerland). Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organization in partnership with St. Boniface (739), and tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo. He was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748.[13][14] Saint Boniface completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century.

Tassilo III (b. 741 – d. after 796) succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria. He initially ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onward. He was particularly noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonizing these lands. After 781, however, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and finally deposed him in 788. The deposition was not entirely legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback. The king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, and he probably died a monk. As all of his family were also forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty.

Bavarian duchies after the partition of 1392

For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy, rarely for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in 976, Bavaria lost large territories in the south and south east. The territory of Ostarrichi was elevated to a duchy in its own right and given to the Babenberger family. This event marks the founding of Austria.

The last, and one of the most important, of the dukes of Bavaria was Henry the Lion of the house of Welf, founder of Munich, and de facto the second most powerful man in the empire as the ruler of two duchies. When in 1180, Henry the Lion was deposed as Duke of Saxony and Bavaria by his cousin, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor (a.k.a. "Barbarossa" for his red beard), Bavaria was awarded as fief to the Wittelsbach family, counts palatinate of Schyren ("Scheyern" in modern German). They ruled for 738 years, from 1180 to 1918. The Electorate of the Palatinate by Rhine (Kurpfalz in German) was also acquired by the House of Wittelsbach in 1214, which they would subsequently hold for six centuries.[15]

The first of several divisions of the duchy of Bavaria occurred in 1255. With the extinction of the Hohenstaufen in 1268, Swabian territories were acquired by the Wittelsbach dukes. Emperor Louis the Bavarian acquired Brandenburg, Tyrol, Holland and Hainaut for his House but released the Upper Palatinate for the Palatinate branch of the Wittelsbach in 1329. In the 14th and 15th centuries, upper and lower Bavaria were repeatedly subdivided. Four Duchies existed after the division of 1392: Bavaria-Straubing, Bavaria-Landshut, Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Bavaria-Munich. In 1506 with the Landshut War of Succession, the other parts of Bavaria were reunited, and Munich became the sole capital. The country became one of the Jesuit-supported counter-reformation centers.

Bavarian herald Joerg Rugenn wearing a tabard of the arms around 1510

Electorate of Bavaria

In 1623 the Bavarian duke replaced his relative of the Palatinate branch, the Electorate of the Palatinate in the early days of the Thirty Years' War and acquired the powerful prince-electoral dignity in the Holy Roman Empire, determining its Emperor thence forward, as well as special legal status under the empire's laws.

During the early and mid-18th century the ambitions of the Bavarian prince electors led to several wars with Austria as well as occupations by Austria (War of the Spanish Succession, War of the Austrian Succession with the election of a Wittelsbach emperor instead of a Habsburg). From 1777 onward, and after the younger Bavarian branch of the family had died out with elector Max III Joseph, Bavaria and the Electorate of the Palatinate were governed once again in personal union, now by the Palatinian lines. The new state also comprised the Duchies of Jülich and Berg as these on their part were in personal union with the Palatinate.

Kingdom of Bavaria

Bavaria in the 19th century and beyond

When Napoleon abolished the Holy Roman Empire, Bavaria became a kingdom in 1806 due, in part, to the Confederation of the Rhine.[16] Its area doubled after the Duchy of Jülich was ceded to France, as the Electoral Palatinate was divided between France and the Grand Duchy of Baden. The Duchy of Berg was given to Jerome Bonaparte. The Tyrol and Salzburg were temporarily reunited with Bavaria but finally ceded to Austria by the Congress of Vienna. In return Bavaria was allowed to annex the modern-day region of Palatinate to the west of the Rhine and Franconia in 1815. Between 1799 and 1817, the leading minister, Count Montgelas, followed a strict policy of modernisation; he laid the foundations of administrative structures that survived the monarchy and retain core validity in the 21st century. In May 1808 a first constitution was passed by Maximilian I,[17] being modernized in 1818. This second version established a bicameral Parliament with a House of Lords (Kammer der Reichsräte) and a House of Commons (Kammer der Abgeordneten). That constitution was followed until the collapse of the monarchy at the end of World War I.

After the rise of Prussia to power in the early 18th century, Bavaria preserved its independence by playing off the rivalry of Prussia and Austria. Allied to Austria, it was defeated along with Austrian in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War and was not incorporated into the North German Confederation of 1867, but the question of German unity was still alive. When France declared war on Prussia in 1870, the south German states Baden, Württemberg, Hessen-Darmstadt and Bavaria joined the Prussian forces (whereas Austria did not) and ultimately joined the Federation, which was renamed Deutsches Reich (German Empire) in 1871 while Austria did not. Bavaria continued as a monarchy, and it had some special rights within the federation (such as an army, railways, postal service and a diplomatic body of its own).

Part of the German Empire

Bavarian stamps during the German Empire

When Bavaria became part of the newly formed German Empire, this action was considered controversial by Bavarian nationalists who had wanted to retain independence from the rest of Germany, as Austria had. As Bavaria had a majority-Catholic population, many people resented being ruled by the mostly Protestant northerners of Prussia. As a direct result of the Bavarian-Prussian feud, political parties formed to encourage Bavaria to break away and regain its independence.[18] Although the idea of Bavarian separatism was popular in the late 19th and early 20th century, apart from a small minority such as the Bavaria Party, most Bavarians accepted that Bavaria is part of Germany.[citation needed]

In the early 20th century, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Henrik Ibsen, and other artists were drawn to Bavaria, especially to the Schwabing district of Munich, a center of international artistic activity. This area was devastated by bombing and invasion during World War II.

Free State of Bavaria

A memorial to soldiers who died in the two World Wars in Dietelskirchen, Bavaria
Dachau concentration camp memorial sculpture erected in 1968

Free State has been an adopted designation after the abolition of monarchy in the aftermath of World War I in several German states. On 12 November 1918, Ludwig III signed a document, the Anif declaration, releasing both civil and military officers from their oaths; the newly formed republican government, or "People's State" of Socialist premier Kurt Eisner,[19] interpreted this as an abdication. To date, however, no member of the House of Wittelsbach has ever formally declared renunciation of the throne.[20] On the other hand, none has ever since officially called upon their Bavarian or Stuart claims. Family members are active in cultural and social life, including the head of the house, Franz, Duke of Bavaria. They step back from any announcements on public affairs, showing approval or disapproval solely by Franz's presence or absence.

Eisner was assassinated in February 1919, ultimately leading to a Communist revolt and the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic being proclaimed 6 April 1919. After violent suppression by elements of the German Army and notably the Freikorps, the Bavarian Soviet Republic fell in May 1919. The Bamberg Constitution (Bamberger Verfassung) was enacted on 12 or 14 August 1919 and came into force on 15 September 1919 creating the Free State of Bavaria within the Weimar Republic. Extremist activity further increased, notably the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch led by the National Socialists, and Munich and Nuremberg became seen as Nazi strongholds under the Third Reich of Adolf Hitler. However, in the crucial German federal election, March 1933, the Nazis received less than 50% of the votes cast in Bavaria.

As a manufacturing centre, Munich was heavily bombed during World War II and was occupied by U.S. troops, becoming a major part of the American Zone of Allied-occupied Germany (1945–47) and then of "Bizonia".

The Rhenish Palatinate was detached from Bavaria in 1946 and made part of the new state Rhineland-Palatinate. During the Cold War, Bavaria was part of West Germany. In 1949, the Free State of Bavaria chose not to sign the Founding Treaty (Gründungsvertrag) for the formation of the Federal Republic of Germany, opposing the division of Germany into two states, after World War II. The Bavarian Parliament did not sign the Basic Law of Germany, mainly because it was seen as not granting sufficient powers to the individual Länder, but at the same time decided that it would still come into force in Bavaria if two-thirds of the other Länder ratified it. All of the other Länder ratified it, and so it became law.

Bavarian identity

Bavarians have often emphasized a separate national identity and considered themselves as "Bavarians" first, "Germans" second.[21] This feeling started to come about more strongly among Bavarians when the Kingdom of Bavaria joined the Protestant Prussian-dominated German Empire while the Bavarian nationalists wanted to keep Bavaria as Catholic and an independent state. Nowadays, aside from the minority Bavaria Party, most Bavarians accept that Bavaria is part of Germany.[22] Another consideration is that Bavarians foster different cultural identities: Franconia in the north, speaking East Franconian German; Bavarian Swabia in the south west, speaking Swabian German; and Altbayern (so-called "Old Bavaria", the regions forming the "historic", pentagon-shaped Bavaria before the acquisitions through the Vienna Congress, at present the districts of the Upper Palatinate, Lower and Upper Bavaria) speaking Austro-Bavarian. In Munich, the Old Bavarian dialect was widely spread, but nowadays High German is predominantly spoken there. Moreover, by the expulsion of German speakers from Eastern Europe, Bavaria has received a large population that was not traditionally Bavarian. In particular, the Sudeten Germans, expelled from neighboring Czechoslovakia, have been deemed to have become the "fourth tribe" of Bavarians.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Beiere
Alemannisch: Bayern
አማርኛ: ባቫሪያ
Ænglisc: Bægwaraland
العربية: بافاريا
aragonés: Bavera
arpetan: Baviére
asturianu: Baviera
Avañe'ẽ: Baviera
Aymar aru: Bayern suyu
azərbaycanca: Bavariya
تۆرکجه: بایرن
বাংলা: বায়ার্ন
Bân-lâm-gú: Bayern
башҡортса: Бавария
беларуская: Баварыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Баварыя
български: Бавария
Boarisch: Bayern
bosanski: Bavarska
brezhoneg: Bavaria
català: Baviera
Чӑвашла: Бавари
Cebuano: Bavaria
čeština: Bavorsko
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Baviera
Cymraeg: Bafaria
dansk: Bayern
davvisámegiella: Bayern
Deitsch: Bavaari
Deutsch: Bayern
dolnoserbski: Bayerska
eesti: Baieri
Ελληνικά: Βαυαρία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Bavéra
español: Baviera
Esperanto: Bavario
estremeñu: Baviera
euskara: Bavaria
فارسی: بایرن
français: Bavière
Frysk: Beieren
Gaeilge: An Bhaváir
Gaelg: Yn Vaveyr
Gàidhlig: A' Bhaidhearn
galego: Baviera
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Bayern
한국어: 바이에른주
հայերեն: Բավարիա
हिन्दी: बायर्न
hornjoserbsce: Bayerska
hrvatski: Bavarska
Ido: Bavaria
Ilokano: Bavaria
Bahasa Indonesia: Bayern
interlingua: Bavaria
Interlingue: Bavaria
Ирон: Бавари
íslenska: Bæjaraland
italiano: Baviera
עברית: בוואריה
Jawa: Bayern
Kapampangan: Bavaria
ქართული: ბავარია
kaszëbsczi: Bajerë
қазақша: Бавария
kernowek: Bayern
Kiswahili: Bavaria
Kongo: Bavaria
kurdî: Bavyera
Кыргызча: Бавария
Ladino: Baviera
latgaļu: Bavāreja
Latina: Bavaria
latviešu: Bavārija
Lëtzebuergesch: Bayern
lietuvių: Bavarija
Ligure: Bavea
Limburgs: Beiere
Lingua Franca Nova: Bayern
lumbaart: Baviera
magyar: Bajorország
македонски: Баварија
മലയാളം: ബവേറിയ
Malti: Bavarja
मराठी: बायर्न
مصرى: بافاريا
Bahasa Melayu: Bavaria
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Bayern
монгол: Бавари
Nederlands: Beieren
Nedersaksies: Baiern
नेपाल भाषा: बभेरिया
нохчийн: Бавари
Nordfriisk: Bayern
norsk: Bayern
norsk nynorsk: Bayern
Novial: Bavaria
occitan: Bavièra
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Bavariya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬਾਈਆਨ
Pälzisch: Bayern
پنجابی: باویریا
Papiamentu: Freistaat Bayern
Picard: Bavière
Piemontèis: Baviera
Plattdüütsch: Bayern
polski: Bawaria
português: Baviera
Qaraqalpaqsha: Bavariya
română: Bavaria
rumantsch: Baviera
Runa Simi: Bayern
русский: Бавария
саха тыла: Бавария
sardu: Baviera
Scots: Bavarie
Seeltersk: Bayern
shqip: Bavaria
sicilianu: Baviera
Simple English: Bavaria
سنڌي: بويريا
slovenčina: Bavorsko
slovenščina: Bavarska
ślůnski: Bajery
کوردی: باڤاریا
српски / srpski: Баварска
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bavarska
Sunda: Bayern
suomi: Baijeri
svenska: Bayern
Tagalog: Bavaria
தமிழ்: பவேரியா
татарча/tatarça: Бавария
తెలుగు: బవేరియా
tetun: Baviera
Türkçe: Bavyera
Türkmençe: Bawariýa
українська: Баварія
اردو: باواریا
vèneto: Baviera
Tiếng Việt: Bayern
Volapük: Bayän
文言: 巴伐利亞
West-Vlams: Beyern
Winaray: Bayern
吴语: 巴伐利亚
ייִדיש: בייערן
Yorùbá: Bavaria
粵語: 拜仁
Zazaki: Bavyera
žemaitėška: Bavarėjė
中文: 巴伐利亚