A game from the
Cantigas de Santa Maria
, c. 1280, involving tossing a ball, hitting it with a stick and competing with others to catch it
The evolution of baseball from older bat-and-ball games is difficult to trace with precision. A
French manuscript from 1344 contains an illustration of clerics playing a game, possibly
la soule, with similarities to baseball.
 Other old French games such as thèque, la balle au bâton, and la balle empoisonnée also appear to be related.
 Consensus once held that today's baseball is a North American development from the older game
rounders, popular in
Great Britain and Ireland.
Baseball Before We Knew It: A Search for the Roots of the Game (2005), by David Block, suggests that the game originated in England; recently uncovered historical evidence supports this position. Block argues that rounders and early baseball were actually regional variants of each other, and that the game's most direct antecedents are the English games of
stoolball and "tut-ball".
 It has long been believed that
cricket also descended from such games, though evidence uncovered in early 2009 suggests that cricket may have been imported to England from
The earliest known reference to baseball is in a 1744 British publication,
A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, by
John Newbery. It contains a rhymed description of "base-ball" and a
woodcut that shows a field set-up somewhat similar to the modern game—though in a triangular rather than diamond configuration, and with posts instead of ground-level bases.
 David Block discovered that the first recorded game of "Bass-Ball" took place in 1749 in
Surrey, and featured the
Prince of Wales as a player.
 William Bray, an English lawyer, recorded a game of baseball on
Easter Monday 1755 in
 This early form of the game was apparently brought to Canada by English immigrants. Rounders was also brought to the United States by Canadians of both British and Irish ancestry. The first known American reference to baseball appears in a 1791
Pittsfield, Massachusetts town bylaw prohibiting the playing of the game near the town's new meeting house.
 By 1796, a version of the game was well-known enough to earn a mention in a German scholar's book on popular pastimes. As described by Johann Gutsmuths, "englische Base-ball" involved a contest between two teams, in which "the batter has three attempts to hit the ball while at the home plate." Only one out was required to retire a side.
Alexander Cartwright, father of modern baseball
By the early 1830s, there were reports of a variety of uncodified bat-and-ball games recognizable as early forms of baseball being played around North America. These games were often referred to locally as "
town ball", though other names such as "round-ball" and "base-ball" were also used.
 Among the earliest examples to receive a detailed description—albeit five decades after the fact, in a letter from an attendee to
Sporting Life magazine—took place in
Beachville, Ontario, in 1838. There were many similarities to modern baseball, and some crucial differences: five bases (or byes); first bye just 18 feet (5.5 m) from the home bye; batter out if a hit ball was caught after the first bounce.
once widely accepted story that
Abner Doubleday invented baseball in
Cooperstown, New York, in 1839 has been conclusively debunked by sports historians.
Alexander Cartwright, a member of New York City's
Knickerbocker Club, led the codification of the so-called
 The practice, common to bat-and-ball games of the day, of "soaking" or "plugging"—effecting a
putout by hitting a runner with a thrown ball—was barred. The rules thus facilitated the use of a smaller, harder ball than had been common. Several other rules also brought the Knickerbockers' game close to the modern one, though a ball caught on the first bounce was, again, an out and only underhand pitching was allowed.
 While there are reports that the
New York Knickerbockers played games in 1845, the contest long recognized as the first officially recorded baseball game in U.S. history took place on June 19, 1846, in
Hoboken, New Jersey: the "New York Nine" defeated the Knickerbockers, 23–1, in four innings.
 With the Knickerbocker code as the basis, the rules of modern baseball continued to evolve over the next half-century.
History of baseball in the United States
The game turns professional
In the mid-1850s, a baseball craze hit the
New York metropolitan area.
 By 1856, local journals were referring to baseball as the "national pastime" or "national game."
 A year later, sixteen area clubs formed the sport's first governing body, the
National Association of Base Ball Players. In 1858 in
New York, at the Fashion Race Course, the first games of baseball to charge admission took place. The games, which took place between the all-stars of
Brooklyn, including players from the
Excelsior of Brooklyn, Putnams and
Eckford of Brooklyn, and the All-Stars of New York (
Manhattan), including players from the
New York Knickerbockers, Gothams (predecessors of the
San Francisco Giants), Eagles and Empire, are commonly believed to be the first all-star baseball games.
 In 1863, the organization disallowed putouts made by catching a
fair ball on the first bounce. Four years later, it barred participation by
 The game's commercial potential was developing: in 1869 the first fully professional baseball club, the
Cincinnati Red Stockings, was formed and went undefeated against a schedule of semipro and amateur teams.
 The first professional league, the
National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, lasted from 1871 to 1875; scholars dispute
its status as a major league.
The more formally structured
National League was founded in 1876. As the oldest surviving major league, the National League is sometimes referred to as the "senior circuit."
 Several other major leagues formed and failed. In 1884, African American
Moses Walker (and, briefly, his brother Welday) played in one of these, the
 An injury ended Walker's major league career, and by the early 1890s, a
gentlemen's agreement in the form of the
baseball color line effectively barred black players from the white-owned professional leagues, major and minor.
Negro leagues formed, but quickly folded. Several independent African American teams succeeded as
 Also in 1884, overhand pitching was legalized.
 In 1887,
softball, under the name of indoor baseball or indoor-outdoor, was invented as a winter version of the parent game.
 Virtually all of the modern
baseball rules were in place by 1893; the last major change—counting
foul balls as
strikes—was instituted in 1901.
 The National League's first successful counterpart, the
American League, which evolved from the minor
Western League, was established that year.
 The two leagues, each with eight teams, were rivals that fought for the best players, often disregarding each other's contracts and engaging in bitter legal disputes.
A modicum of peace was eventually established, leading to the National Agreement of 1903. The pact formalized relations both between the two major leagues and between them and the National Association of Professional Base Ball Leagues, representing most of the country's
minor professional leagues.
World Series, pitting the two major league champions against each other, was inaugurated that fall, albeit without express major league sanction: The
Boston Americans of the American League defeated the
Pittsburgh Pirates of the National League.
 The next year, the series was not held, as the National League champion
New York Giants, under
John McGraw, refused to recognize the major league status of the American League and its champion.
 In 1905, the Giants were National League champions again and team management relented, leading to the establishment of the World Series as the major leagues' annual championship event.
As professional baseball became increasingly profitable, players frequently raised grievances against owners over issues of control and equitable income distribution. During the major leagues' early decades, players on various teams occasionally attempted
strikes, which routinely failed when their jobs were sufficiently threatened. In general, the strict rules of baseball contracts and the
reserve clause, which bound players to their teams even when their contracts had ended, tended to keep the players in check.
 Motivated by dislike for particularly stingy owner
Charles Comiskey and gamblers' payoffs, real and promised, members of the
Chicago White Sox conspired to
1919 World Series. The
Black Sox Scandal led to the formation of a new National Commission of baseball that drew the two major leagues closer together.
 The first
major league baseball commissioner,
Kenesaw Mountain Landis, was elected in 1920. That year also saw the founding of the
Negro National League; the first significant Negro league, it would operate until 1931. For part of the 1920s, it was joined by the
Eastern Colored League.
Professional baseball was played in northeastern cities with a large immigrant-ethnic population; they gave strong support to the new sport. The
Irish Catholics dominated in the late 19th century, comprising a third or more of the players and many of the top stars and managers.
 Historian Jerrold Casway argues that:
Baseball for Irish kids was a shortcut to the American dream and to self-indulgent glory and fortune. By the mid-1880s these young Irish men dominated the sport and popularized a style of play that was termed heady, daring, and spontaneous....
Ed Delahanty personified the flamboyant, exciting spectator-favorite, the
Casey-at-the-bat, Irish slugger. The handsome masculine athlete who is expected to live as large as he played.
Rise of Ruth and racial integration
Compared with the present, professional baseball in the early 20th century was lower-scoring, and pitchers, including stars
Walter Johnson and
Christy Mathewson, were more dominant. The "
inside game", which demanded that players "scratch for runs", was played much more aggressively than it is today: the brilliant and often violent
Ty Cobb epitomized this style.
 The so-called
dead-ball era ended in the early 1920s with several changes in rule and circumstance that were advantageous to hitters. Strict new regulations governing the ball's size, shape and composition, along with a new rule officially banning the
spitball and other pitches that depended on the ball being treated or roughed-up with foreign substances, followed the death of
Ray Chapman after a pitch struck him in the head in August 1920. Coupled with superior materials available after World War I, this resulted in a ball that traveled farther when hit. The construction of additional seating to accommodate the rising popularity of the game often had the effect of reducing the distance to the outfield fences, making
home runs more common.
 The rise of the legendary player
Babe Ruth, the first great power hitter of the new era, helped permanently alter the nature of the game. The club with which Ruth set most of his slugging records, the
New York Yankees, built a reputation as the majors' premier team.
 In the late 1920s and early 1930s,
St. Louis Cardinals
Branch Rickey invested in several
minor league clubs and developed the first modern "
 A new
Negro National League was organized in 1933; four years later, it was joined by the
Negro American League. The
first elections to the
National Baseball Hall of Fame took place in 1936. In 1939
Little League Baseball was founded in Pennsylvania. By the late 1940s, it was the organizing body for
children's baseball leagues across the United States.
With America's entry into World War II, many professional players had left to serve in the armed forces. A large number of minor league teams disbanded as a result and the major league game seemed under threat as well.
Chicago Cubs owner
Philip K. Wrigley led the formation of a new professional league with women players to help keep the game in the public eye – the
All-American Girls Professional Baseball League existed from 1943 to 1954.
 The inaugural
College World Series was held in 1947, and the
Babe Ruth League youth program was founded. This program soon became another important organizing body for children's baseball. The first crack in the unwritten agreement barring blacks from white-controlled professional ball occurred the previous year:
Jackie Robinson was signed by the National League's
Brooklyn Dodgers—where Branch Rickey had become general manager—and began playing for their minor league
team in Montreal.
 In 1947, Robinson broke the major leagues' color barrier when he debuted with the Dodgers;
Larry Doby debuted with the American League's
Cleveland Indians later the same year.
 Latin American players, largely overlooked before, also started entering the majors in greater numbers. In 1951, two Chicago White Sox, Venezuelan-born
Chico Carrasquel and black Cuban-born
Minnie Miñoso, became the first Hispanic
Facing competition as varied as television and
, baseball attendance at all levels declined. While the majors rebounded by the mid-1950s, the minor leagues were gutted and hundreds of semipro and amateur teams dissolved.
Integration proceeded slowly: by 1953, only six of the 16 major league teams had a black player on the roster.
 That year, the
Major League Baseball Players Association was founded. It was the first professional baseball union to survive more than briefly, but it remained largely ineffective for years.
 No major league team had been located west of
St. Louis until 1958, when the Brooklyn Dodgers and New York Giants relocated to
Los Angeles and
San Francisco, respectively.
 The majors' final all-white bastion, the
Boston Red Sox, added a black player in 1959.
 With the integration of the majors drying up the available pool of players, the last Negro league folded the following year.
 In 1961, the American League reached the West Coast with the
Los Angeles Angels
expansion team, and the major league season was extended from 154 games to 162. This coincidentally helped
Roger Maris break Babe Ruth's long-standing single-season home run record, one of the most celebrated marks in baseball.
 Along with the Angels, three other new franchises were launched during 1961–62. With this, the first major league expansion in 60 years, each league now had ten teams.
Attendance records and the age of steroids
The players' union became bolder under the leadership of former
United Steelworkers chief economist and negotiator
Marvin Miller, who was elected executive director in 1966.
 On the playing field, major league pitchers were becoming increasingly dominant again. After the 1968 season, in an effort to restore balance, the
strike zone was reduced and the height of the
pitcher's mound was lowered from 15 to 10 inches (38.1 - 25.4 cm). In 1969, both the National and American Leagues added two more expansion teams, the leagues were reorganized into two divisions each, and a post-season playoff system leading to the World Series was instituted. Also that same year,
Curt Flood of the St. Louis Cardinals made the first serious legal challenge to the reserve clause. The major leagues'
first general players' strike took place in 1972, delaying the season's start for two weeks.
 In another effort to add more offense to the game, the American League adopted the
designated hitter rule the following year.
 In 1975, the union's power—and players' salaries—began to increase greatly when the reserve clause was
effectively struck down, leading to the
free agency system.
 In 1977, two more expansion teams joined the American League. Significant work stoppages occurred again in
1994, the latter forcing the cancellation of the World Series for the first time in 90 years.
 Attendance had been growing steadily since the mid-1970s and in 1994, before the stoppage, the majors were setting their all-time record for per-game attendance.
The addition of two more expansion teams after the 1993 season had facilitated another restructuring of the major leagues, this time into three divisions each. Offensive production—the number of home runs in particular—had surged that year, and again in the abbreviated 1994 season.
 After play resumed in 1995, this trend continued and non-division-winning
wild card teams became a permanent fixture of the post-season. Regular-season
interleague play was introduced in 1997 and the second-highest attendance mark for a full season was set.
 The next year,
Mark McGwire and
both surpassed Maris's decades-old single-season home run record, and two more expansion franchises were added. In 2000, the National and American Leagues were dissolved as legal entities. While their identities were maintained for scheduling purposes (and the designated hitter distinction), the regulations and other functions—such as player discipline and
umpire supervision—they had administered separately were consolidated under the rubric of
Major League Baseball (MLB).
Barry Bonds established the current record of 73 home runs in a single season. There had long been suspicions that the dramatic increase in power hitting was fueled in large part by
the abuse of illegal steroids (as well as by the dilution of pitching talent due to expansion), but the issue only began attracting significant media attention in 2002 and there was no penalty for the use of performance-enhancing drugs before 2004.
 In 2007, Bonds became MLB's all-time home run leader, surpassing
Hank Aaron, as total major league and minor league attendance both reached all-time highs.
 Even though McGwire, Sosa, and Bonds—as well as many other players, including storied pitcher
Roger Clemens—have been implicated in the
steroid abuse scandal, their feats and those of other sluggers had become the major leagues' defining attraction.
 In contrast to the professional game's resurgence in popularity after the 1994 interruption, Little League enrollment was in decline: after peaking in 1996, it dropped 1 percent a year over the following decade.
 With more rigorous testing and penalties for performance-enhancing drug use a possible factor, the balance between bat and ball swung markedly in 2010, which became known as the "Year of the Pitcher".
 Runs per game fell to their lowest level in 18 years, and the strikeout rate was higher than it had been in half a century.
Before the start of the 2012 season, MLB altered its rules to double the number of wild card teams admitted into the playoffs to two per league.
 The playoff expansion resulted in the addition of annual
one-game playoffs between the wild card teams in each league.
Baseball around the world
Baseball, widely known as America's pastime, is well established in several other countries as well. The history of baseball in Canada has remained closely linked with that of the sport in the United States. As early as 1877, a professional league, the
International Association, featured teams from both countries.
 While baseball is widely played in Canada and many minor league teams have been based in the country, the American major leagues did not include a Canadian club until 1969, when the
Montreal Expos joined the National League as an expansion team. In 1977, the expansion
Toronto Blue Jays joined the American League. The Blue Jays won the World Series in 1992 and 1993, the first and still the only club from outside the United States to do so. After the 2004 season, Major League Baseball relocated the Expos to Washington, D.C., where the team is now known as the
In 1847, American soldiers played what may have been the first baseball game in Mexico at
Parque Los Berros in
Veracruz. A few days after the
Battle of Cerro Gordo, they used the "wooden leg captured (by the Fourth Illinois regiment) from General
 The first formal baseball league outside of the United States and Canada was founded in 1878 in Cuba, which maintains a rich baseball tradition and whose national team has been one of the world's strongest since international play began in the late 1930s (all organized baseball in the country has officially been amateur since the
Cuban Revolution). The Dominican Republic held its first islandwide championship tournament in 1912.
 Professional baseball tournaments and leagues began to form in other countries between the world wars, including the Netherlands (formed in 1922), Australia (1934), Japan (1936), Mexico (1937), and Puerto Rico (1938).
Japanese major leagues—the
Central League and
Pacific League—have long been considered the highest quality professional circuits outside of the United States.
 Japan has a professional minor league system as well, though it is much smaller than the American version—each team has only one farm club in contrast to MLB teams' four or five.
After World War II, professional leagues were founded in many Latin American countries, most prominently Venezuela (1946) and the Dominican Republic (1955).
 Since the early 1970s, the annual
Caribbean Series has matched the championship clubs from the four leading Latin American winter leagues: the
Dominican Professional Baseball League,
Mexican Pacific League,
Puerto Rican Professional Baseball League, and
Venezuelan Professional Baseball League. In Asia,
South Korea (1982),
Taiwan (1990) and
China (2003) all have professional leagues.
Many European countries have professional leagues as well, the most successful, other than the
Dutch league, being the
Italian league founded in 1948.
 Compared to those in Asia and Latin America, the various European leagues and the one in Australia historically have had no more than niche appeal. In 2004, Australia won a surprise silver medal at the
Olympic Games. The
Israel Baseball League, launched in 2007, folded after one season.
 The Confédération Européene de Baseball (European Baseball Confederation), founded in 1953, organizes a number of competitions between clubs from different countries, as well as national squads. Other competitions between national teams, such as the
Baseball World Cup and the
Olympic baseball tournament, were administered by the
International Baseball Federation (IBAF) from its formation in 1938 until its 2013 merger with the
International Softball Federation to create the current joint governing body for both sports, the
World Baseball Softball Confederation (WBSC). By 2009, the IBAF had 117 member countries.
Women's baseball is played on an organized amateur basis in many of the countries where it is a leading men's sport. Since 2004, the IBAF and now WBSC have sanctioned the
Women's Baseball World Cup, featuring national teams.
After being admitted to the Olympics as a
medal sport beginning with the
1992 Games, baseball was dropped from the
2012 Summer Olympic Games at the 2005
International Olympic Committee
meeting. It remained part of the
2008 Games. The elimination of baseball, along with softball, from the 2012 Olympic program enabled the IOC to consider adding two different sports, but none received the votes required for inclusion.
 While the sport's lack of a following in much of the world was a factor, more important was Major League Baseball's reluctance to have a break during the Games to allow its players to participate, as the
National Hockey League now does during the
Winter Olympic Games. Such a break is more difficult for MLB to accommodate because it would force the playoffs deeper into cold weather.
 Seeking reinstatement for the
2016 Summer Olympics, the IBAF proposed an abbreviated competition designed to facilitate the participation of top players, but the effort failed.
 Major League Baseball initiated the
World Baseball Classic, scheduled to precede the major league season, partly as a replacement, high-profile international tournament. The
inaugural Classic, held in March 2006, was the first tournament involving national teams to feature a significant number of MLB participants.
 The Baseball World Cup was discontinued after its
2011 edition in favor of an expanded World Baseball Classic.