Barry Goldwater

Barry Goldwater
Barry Goldwater photo1962.jpg
Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee
In office
January 3, 1985 – January 3, 1987
Preceded by John Tower
Succeeded by Sam Nunn
Chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee
In office
January 3, 1981 – January 3, 1985
Preceded by Birch Bayh
Succeeded by David Durenberger
United States Senator
from Arizona
In office
January 3, 1969 – January 3, 1987
Preceded by Carl Hayden
Succeeded by John McCain
In office
January 3, 1953 – January 3, 1965
Preceded by Ernest McFarland
Succeeded by Paul Fannin
Personal details
Born Barry Morris Goldwater
(1909-01-02)January 2, 1909
Phoenix, Arizona Territory, U.S.
Died May 29, 1998(1998-05-29) (aged 89)
Paradise Valley, Arizona, U.S.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Margaret Johnson (1934–1985)
Susan Shaffer Wechsler (1992–1998)
Children 4
Alma mater University of Arizona
Signature
Military service
Allegiance   United States
Service/branch   United States Army (1941–1947)
  United States Air Force (1947–1967)
Years of service 1941–1945 (USAAF)
1945–1952 (ANG)
1952–1967 (USAFR)
Rank US-O5 insignia.svg Lieutenant Colonel (USAAF)
US-O6 insignia.svg Colonel (ANG)
US-O8 insignia.svg Major General (USAFR)
Unit
Battles/wars World War II
Korean War

Barry Morris Goldwater (January 2, 1909 [1] – May 29, 1998) was an American politician, businessman, and author who was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–65, 1969–87) and the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 1964 election. Despite losing the election by a landslide, Goldwater is the politician most often credited for sparking the resurgence of the American conservative political movement in the 1960s. He was a vocal opponent to desegregation and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, believing it was an overreach of federal government. He also had a substantial impact on the libertarian movement. [2]

Goldwater rejected the legacy of the New Deal and fought through the conservative coalition against the New Deal coalition. He mobilized a large conservative constituency to win the hard-fought Republican primaries. Though raised an Episcopalian, [3] he was the first candidate with ethnically Jewish heritage to be nominated for President by a major American party (his father was Jewish). [4] [5] Goldwater's conservative campaign platform ultimately failed to gain the support of the electorate [6] and he lost the 1964 presidential election to incumbent Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, bringing down many conservative Republican office-holders as well. Jeff Fishel says, "The conservative faction of the party was on the defensive as a result of the magnitude of the election losses." [7]

Goldwater returned to the Senate in 1969, and specialized in defense policy, bringing to the table his experience as a senior officer in the Air Force Reserve. In 1974, as an elder statesman of the party, Goldwater successfully urged President Richard Nixon to resign when evidence of a cover-up in the Watergate scandal became overwhelming and impeachment was imminent. By the 1980s, the increasing influence of the Christian right on the Republican Party so conflicted with Goldwater's views that he became a vocal opponent of the religious right on issues such as abortion, gay rights, and the role of religion in public life. After narrowly winning re-election to the Senate in 1980, he chose not to run for a sixth term in 1986, and was succeeded by fellow Republican John McCain. A significant accomplishment in his career was the passage of the Goldwater–Nichols Act of 1986, which restructured the higher levels of the Pentagon by placing the chain of command from the President to the Secretary of Defense directly to the commanders of the Unified Combatant Commands.

Personal life

Goldwater was born in Phoenix, in what was then the Arizona Territory, the son of Baron M. Goldwater and his wife, Hattie Josephine ("JoJo") Williams. His father's family had founded Goldwater's, a leading upscale department store in Phoenix. [8] Goldwater's paternal grandfather, Michel Goldwasser, a Polish Jew, was born in 1821 in Poland, whence he emigrated to London following the Revolutions of 1848. Soon after arriving in London, he anglicized his name from "Goldwasser" to "Goldwater". Michel married Sarah Nathan, a member of a Jewish English family, in the Great Synagogue of London. [9] [10]

His father was Jewish and his mother, who was Episcopalian, came from a New England family that included the theologian Roger Williams of Rhode Island. [11] Goldwater's parents were married in an Episcopal church in Phoenix; for his entire life, Goldwater was an Episcopalian, though on rare occasions he referred to himself as " Jewish". [12] While he did not often attend church, he stated that "If a man acts in a religious way, an ethical way, then he's really a religious man—and it doesn't have a lot to do with how often he gets inside a church". [13] [14] [15]

The family department store made the Goldwaters comfortably wealthy. Goldwater graduated from Staunton Military Academy, an elite private school in Virginia, and attended the University of Arizona [12] [16] for one year, where he joined the Sigma Chi fraternity. Barry had never been close to his father, but he took over the family business after Baron's death in 1930. He became a Republican (in a heavily Democratic state), promoted innovative business practices, and opposed the New Deal, especially because it fostered labor unions. Goldwater came to know former President Herbert Hoover, whose conservative politics he admired greatly.

Family

In 1934, he married Margaret "Peggy" Johnson, wealthy daughter of a prominent industrialist from Muncie, Indiana. They had four children: Joanne (born January 1, 1936), Barry (born July 15, 1938), Michael (born March 15, 1940), and Peggy (born July 27, 1944). Goldwater became a widower in 1985, and in 1992 he married Susan Wechsler, a nurse 32 years his junior. [17]

Goldwater's son Barry Goldwater Jr. served as a United States House of Representatives member from California from 1969 to 1983.

Goldwater's uncle Morris Goldwater (1852-1939) was an Arizona territorial and state legislator, mayor of Prescott, Arizona, and a businessman. [18]

Goldwater's grandson, Ty Ross, a former Zoli model, is openly gay and HIV positive, and the one who inspired the elder Goldwater "to become an octogenarian proponent of gay civil rights." [19]

Military career

With the American entry into World War II, Goldwater received a reserve commission in the United States Army Air Forces. He became a pilot assigned to the Ferry Command, a newly formed unit that flew aircraft and supplies to war zones worldwide. He spent most of the war flying between the U.S. and India, via the Azores and North Africa or South America, Nigeria, and Central Africa. He also flew "the hump" over the Himalayas to deliver supplies to the Republic of China.

Following World War II, Goldwater was a leading proponent of creating the United States Air Force Academy, and later served on the Academy's Board of Visitors. The visitor center at the Academy is now named in his honor. As a colonel he also founded the Arizona Air National Guard, and he would desegregate it two years before the rest of the U.S. military. Goldwater was instrumental in pushing the Pentagon to support desegregation of the armed services. [20]

Remaining in the Arizona Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve after the war, he eventually retired as a Command Pilot with the rank of major general. [21] By that time, he had flown 165 different types of aircraft. As an Air Force Reserve major general, he continued piloting aircraft, to include the B-52 Stratofortress, until late in his military career. He would remind those who called him "rash" of the old saying that "there are no old, bold pilots".

Interests

Goldwater ran track and cross country in high school, where he specialized in the 880 yard run. His parents strongly encouraged him to compete in these sports, to Goldwater's dismay. He often went by the nickname of "Rolling Thunder."

In 1940, Goldwater became one of the first people to run the Colorado River recreationally through Grand Canyon participating as an oarsman on Norman Nevills' second commercial river trip. Goldwater joined them in Green River, Utah, and rowed his own boat down to Lake Mead. [22]

In 1970, the Arizona Historical Foundation published the daily journal Goldwater had maintained on the Grand Canyon journey, including his photographs, in a 209-page volume titled Delightful Journey.

In 1963, he joined the Arizona Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. He was also a lifetime member of the Veterans of Foreign Wars, the American Legion, and Sigma Chi fraternity. He belonged to both the York Rite and Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, and was awarded the 33rd degree in the Scottish Rite.

Other Languages
تۆرکجه: بری قلدواتر
български: Бари Голдуотър
čeština: Barry Goldwater
español: Barry Goldwater
français: Barry Goldwater
Bahasa Indonesia: Barry Morris Goldwater
italiano: Barry Goldwater
Kiswahili: Barry Goldwater
Nederlands: Barry Goldwater
português: Barry Goldwater
română: Barry Goldwater
Simple English: Barry Goldwater
српски / srpski: Бари Голдвотер
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Barry Goldwater
українська: Баррі Голдвотер