Barbara A. Bailar is an American statistician, who worked for many years at the
United States Census Bureau but resigned in protest over the decision not to adjust its 1990 results. She is the only person to have been both president and executive director of the
American Statistical Association.
Bailar worked for nearly thirty years at the
United States Census Bureau,
 beginning in 1958.
 During this time she completed a Ph.D. in 1972 from
 and met her husband
John Christian Bailar there.
 At the bureau, she helped begin the use of computer-aided interviewing, and founded an annual research conference. She served as chief of research at the Census Bureau from 1974 to 1979, when she became associate director for Statistical Standards and Methodology. She was
president of the American Statistical Association in 1987.