Baltic Sea

Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea map.png
Map of the Baltic Sea region
Location Europe
Coordinates 58°N 20°E / 58°N 20°E / 58; 20 (slightly east of the north tip of Gotland Island)
Type Sea
Primary inflows Daugava, Kemijoki, Neman (Nemunas), Neva, Oder, Vistula, Lule, Narva, Torne
Primary outflows The Danish Straits
Catchment area 1,641,650 km2 (633,840 sq mi)
Basin countries Coastal: Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden
Non-coastal: Belarus, Czech Republic, Norway, Slovakia, Ukraine [1]
Max. length 1,601 km (995 mi)
Max. width 193 km (120 mi)
Surface area 377,000 km2 (146,000 sq mi)
Average depth 55 m (180 ft)
Max. depth 459 m (1,506 ft)
Water volume 21,700 km3 (1.76×1010 acre·ft)
Residence time 25 years
Shore length1 8,000 km (5,000 mi)
Islands Abruka, Aegna, Archipelago Sea Islands ( Åland Islands), Bornholm, Dänholm, Ertholmene, Falster, Fårö, Fehmarn, Gotland, Hailuoto, Hiddensee, Hiiumaa, Holmöarna, Kassari, Kesselaid, Kihnu, Kimitoön, Kõinastu, Kotlin, Laajasalo, Lauttasaari, Lidingö, Ljusterö, Lolland, Manilaid, Mohni, Møn, Muhu, Poel, Prangli, Osmussaar, Öland, Replot, Ruhnu, Rügen, Saaremaa, Stora Karlsö, Suomenlinna, Suur-Pakri and Väike-Pakri, Ummanz, Usedom/Uznam, Väddö, Värmdö, Vilsandi, Vormsi, Wolin
Settlements Copenhagen, Gdańsk, Gdynia, Helsinki, Kaliningrad, Kiel, Klaipėda, Lübeck, Luleå, Oulu, Riga, Rostock, Saint Petersburg, Stockholm, Tallinn, Turku
References [2]
1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean[ citation needed], enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, the Baltic countries, and the North European Plain. It includes the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bay of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, and the Bay of Gdańsk. The sea stretches from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 10°E to 30°E longitude. A mediterranean sea of the Atlantic[ citation needed], with limited water exchange between the two bodies, the Baltic Sea drains through the Danish islands into the Kattegat by way of the straits of Øresund, the Great Belt, and the Little Belt.

The Baltic Proper is bordered on its northern edge, at the latitude 60°N, by the Åland islands and the Gulf of Bothnia, on its northeastern edge by the Gulf of Finland, on its eastern edge by the Gulf of Riga, and in the west by the Swedish part of the southern Scandinavian Peninsula.

The Baltic Sea is connected by artificial waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea Canal and to the German Bight of the North Sea via the Kiel Canal.

Definitions

Danish Straits and southwestern Baltic Sea

Administration

The Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area includes the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat, without calling Kattegat a part of the Baltic Sea, "For the purposes of this Convention the "Baltic Sea Area" shall be the Baltic Sea and the Entrance to the Baltic Sea, bounded by the parallel of the Skaw in the Skagerrak at 57°44.43'N." [3]

Traffic history

Historically, the Kingdom of Denmark collected Sound Dues from ships at the border between the ocean and the land-locked Baltic Sea. They were collected in the Øresund at Kronborg castle near Helsingør, in the Great Belt at Nyborg. In the Little Belt, the site of intake was moved to Fredericia, after that stronghold had been built. The narrowest part of Little Belt is the "Middelfart Sund" near Middelfart. [4]

Oceanography

Geographers widely agree that the preferred physical border of the Baltic is a line drawn through the southern Danish islands, Drogden-Sill and Langeland. [5] The Drogden Sill is situated north of Køge Bugt and connects Dragør in the south of Copenhagen to Malmö; it is used by the Øresund Bridge, including the Drogden Tunnel. By this definition, the Danish Straits are part of the entrance, but the Bay of Mecklenburg and the Bay of Kiel are parts of the Baltic Sea. Another usual border is the line between Falsterbo, Sweden and Stevns Klint, Denmark, as this is the southern border of Øresund. It's also the border between the shallow southern Øresund (with a typical depth of 5-10 meters only) and notably deeper water.

Hydrography and biology

Drogden Sill (depth of 7 m (23 ft)) sets a limit to Øresund and Darss Sill (depth of 18 m (59 ft)), and a limit to the Belt Sea. [6] The shallow sills are obstacles to the flow of heavy salt water from the Kattegat into the basins around Bornholm and Gotland.

The Kattegat and the southwestern Baltic Sea are well oxygenated and have a rich biology. The remainder of the Sea is brackish, poor in oxygen and in species. Thus, statistically, the more of the entrance that is included in its definition, the healthier the Baltic appears; conversely, the more narrowly it is defined, the more endangered its biology appears.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Oossee
Alemannisch: Ostsee
Ænglisc: Ostsǣ
العربية: بحر البلطيق
aragonés: Mar Baltica
arpetan: Mar Baltica
অসমীয়া: বাল্টিক সাগৰ
asturianu: Mar Bálticu
azərbaycanca: Baltik dənizi
Bân-lâm-gú: Baltic Hái
башҡортса: Балтик диңгеҙе
беларуская: Балтыйскае мора
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Балтыйскае мора
भोजपुरी: बाल्टिक सागर
български: Балтийско море
Boarisch: Ostsee
bosanski: Baltičko more
brezhoneg: Mor Baltel
català: Mar Bàltica
Чӑвашла: Балти тинĕсĕ
čeština: Baltské moře
Cymraeg: Y Môr Baltig
Deutsch: Ostsee
dolnoserbski: Baltiske mórjo
español: Mar Báltico
Esperanto: Balta Maro
euskara: Baltikoa
Fiji Hindi: Baltic Sea
føroyskt: Eystrasalt
français: Mer Baltique
Frysk: Eastsee
Gaeilge: Muir Bhailt
Gàidhlig: Am Muir Baltach
galego: Mar Báltico
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Baltic-hói
한국어: 발트해
Հայերեն: Բալթիկ ծով
hornjoserbsce: Baltiske morjo
hrvatski: Baltičko more
Ido: Baltiko
Bahasa Indonesia: Laut Baltik
interlingua: Mar Baltic
íslenska: Eystrasalt
italiano: Mar Baltico
עברית: הים הבלטי
Basa Jawa: Segara Baltik
ქართული: ბალტიის ზღვა
kaszëbsczi: Bôłt
kernowek: Mor Baltek
Кыргызча: Балтика деңизи
кырык мары: Балти тангыж
latgaļu: Baļtejis jiura
latviešu: Baltijas jūra
Lëtzebuergesch: Baltescht Mier
lietuvių: Baltijos jūra
Limburgs: Ooszee
Livvinkarjala: Baltiekan meri
la .lojban.: baltik. xamsi
Luganda: Baltic Sea
lumbaart: Mar Baltegh
magyar: Balti-tenger
македонски: Балтичко Море
მარგალური: ბალტიაშ ზუღა
مازِرونی: بالتیک دریا
Bahasa Melayu: Laut Baltik
Mirandés: Mar Báltico
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဘောလ်တစ် ပင်လယ်
Nederlands: Oostzee
Nedersaksies: Oostzee
नेपाल भाषा: बाल्टिक सागर
日本語: バルト海
Nordfriisk: Ååstsiie
norsk nynorsk: Austersjøen
occitan: Mar Baltica
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Boltiq dengizi
پنجابی: بالٹک سمندر
Papiamentu: Baltiko
Piemontèis: Mar Bàltich
Plattdüütsch: Oostsee
português: Mar Báltico
română: Marea Baltică
rumantsch: Mar da l'Ost
русиньскый: Балтіцьке море
саха тыла: Балтик байҕал
Seeltersk: Aastsee
sicilianu: Mari Bàlticu
Simple English: Baltic Sea
slovenčina: Baltské more
slovenščina: Baltsko morje
ślůnski: Bałtycke Morze
Soomaaliga: Bada Baldiiqa
српски / srpski: Балтичко море
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Baltičko more
suomi: Itämeri
svenska: Östersjön
Tagalog: Dagat Baltiko
tarandíne: Mar Baltiche
татарча/tatarça: Балтыйк диңгезе
Türkçe: Baltık Denizi
Türkmençe: Baltika deňzi
українська: Балтійське море
vèneto: Mar Bàltego
vepsän kel’: Baltijan meri
Tiếng Việt: Biển Baltic
Võro: Õdagumeri
West-Vlams: Ôostzêe
Winaray: Dagat Baltiko
ייִדיש: באלטישער ים
粵語: 波羅的海
žemaitėška: Baltėjės jūra
中文: 波罗的海