Baeza

Baeza
Municipality
CondeRomanones.jpg
Flag of Baeza
Flag
Coat of arms of Baeza
Coat of arms
Baeza is located in Andalusia
Baeza
Baeza
Location in Andalusia
Coordinates: 37°59′N 3°28′W / 37°59′N 3°28′W / 37.983; -3.467
Country Spain
Autonomous community Andalusia
ProvinceJaén
ComarcaLa Loma
Judicial districtBaeza
Government
 • MayorLeocadio Marín Rodríguez (PSOE)
Area
 • Total194.3 km2 (75.0 sq mi)
Elevation769 m (2,523 ft)
Population (2009)
 • Total16,253
 • Density84/km2 (220/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Baezanos
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code23440
WebsiteOfficial website
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Part ofRenaissance Monumental Ensembles of Úbeda and Baeza
CriteriaCultural: (ii), (iv)
Reference522rev-002
Inscription2003 (27th Session)
Area4.8 ha (12 acres)
Buffer zone176 ha (430 acres)

Baeza (Spanish pronunciation: [baˈeθa]), formerly also written as Baéza,[1] is an Andalusian town in the province of Jaén in southern Spain. It lies perched on a cliff in the Loma de Úbeda, the range separating the Guadalquivir River to its south from the Guadalimar to its north. It is now principally famed for having some of the best-preserved examples of Italian Renaissance architecture in Spain. Along with Úbeda, it was added to UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 2003. The former Visigothic bishopric of Baeza remains a Latin Catholic titular see.

History

The town stands at a high elevation about 3 miles (4.8 km) from the right bank of the Guadalquivir[2] in the Loma de Úbeda.[1] Under the Romans, the town was known as Beatia.[2] Following its conquest by the Visigoths, Beatia was the seat of a bishopric of Baeza (viz.), which was suppressed after a period under Moorish rule. Baeza reached its greatest prosperity under Islamic rule, when it formed the capital of an effectively independent ?emirate and reached a population of around 50,000.[2] Remnants of the Moors' fortifications include the town's Jaén and Úbeda gates and the Arch of Baeza.[2]

The Christian diocese was reëstablished in 1127 or 1147[citation needed] following the town's conquest by Alfonso VII of Castile, but it was then reconquered by the Muslims and its cathedral adopted as a mosque. The town never recovered from the destruction endured upon its conquest by Ferdinand III of Castile in 1227[citation needed] or 1239.[2] The diocese of Baeza was merged with Jaén in 1248[1] or 1249,[citation needed] but was later nominally restored as a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.[3]

The red dye made from a local cochineal came to be celebrated[2] and a second era of lesser prosperity occurred in the 16th century, when Baeza and nearby Úbeda grew rich from their textile industry. Local nobles hired major architects of the era (including Andrés de Vandelvira)[citation needed] to design the present cathedral, churches, public buildings, and private palaces in the then-fashionable Italian style. The town's university building dates to 1533.[2] The economy collapsed in the 17th century, with the only remaining industry consisting of local production of grain and olive oil. As few newer structures were built during this period, this had the effect of preserving the town's Renaissance legacy.[citation needed] The university closed for a time before being reopened by the 19th century[2] as a seminary. In the 1870s, the population was around 11,000;[2] over the next few decades, the LinaresAlmeria railway was constructed nearby and town's population grew to 14,000 by 1900.[1]

Other Languages
العربية: بياسة
تۆرکجه: بائسا
Bân-lâm-gú: Baeza
català: Baeza
čeština: Baeza
Deutsch: Baeza
español: Baeza (España)
Esperanto: Baeza
euskara: Baeza
فارسی: بائسا
français: Baeza
galego: Baeza
한국어: 바에사
հայերեն: Բաեսա
हिन्दी: बाएसा
hrvatski: Baeza
italiano: Baeza
עברית: באיסה
ქართული: ბაესა
Kreyòl ayisyen: Baeza (Jaén)
magyar: Baeza
മലയാളം: ബൈസ
Bahasa Melayu: Baeza
Nederlands: Baeza
日本語: バエサ
occitan: Baeza
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Baeza
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬਾਏਸਾ
polski: Baeza
português: Baeza
română: Baeza
русский: Баэса
Scots: Baeza
shqip: Baeza
slovenčina: Baeza
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Baeza
suomi: Baeza
svenska: Baeza
Türkçe: Baeza
українська: Баеса
Tiếng Việt: Baeza
Winaray: Baeza
中文: 拜萨