Auschwitz concentration camp

  • auschwitz
    nazi concentration and extermination camp (1940–1945)
    auschwitz i (22 may 2010).jpg
    birkenau múzeum - panoramio (cropped).jpg
    top: gate to auschwitz i with its arbeit macht frei sign ("work sets you free")
    bottom: auschwitz ii-birkenau gatehouse; the train track, in operation may–october 1944, led directly to the gas chambers.[1]
    videodrone footage, 2015
    imagesgoogle earth
    coordinates50°02′09″n 19°10′42″e / 50°02′09″n 19°10′42″e / 50.03583; 19.17833); also kl auschwitz or kz auschwitz
    known forthe holocaust
    locationgerman-occupied poland
    operated bynazi germany and the schutzstaffel
    founding commandantrudolf höss
    original usearmy barracks
    operationalmay 1940 – january 1945
    inmatesmainly jews, poles, romani, soviet prisoners of war
    number of inmatesat least 1.3 million[2]
    killedat least 1.1 million[2]
    liberated bysoviet union, 27 january 1945
    notable inmatescategory:auschwitz prisoners: adolf burger, anne frank, viktor frankl, imre kertész, maximilian kolbe, primo levi, fritz löhner-beda, irène némirovsky, witold pilecki, edith stein, simone veil, rudolf vrba, alfréd wetzler, elie wiesel, else ury
    notable books
    • man's search for meaning (1946)
    • if this is a man (1947)
    • night (1960)
    • maus (1980–1991)
    websiteauschwitz.org/en/
    unesco world heritage site
    official nameauschwitz birkenau, german nazi concentration and extermination camp (1940–1945)
    typecultural
    criteriavi
    designated1979 (3rd 31
    regioneurope and north america

    the auschwitz concentration camp (konzentrationslager auschwitz) was a complex of over 40 concentration and extermination camps operated by nazi germany in occupied poland during world war ii and the holocaust. it consisted of auschwitz i, the main camp (stammlager) in oświęcim; auschwitz ii-birkenau, a concentration and extermination camp built with several gas chambers; auschwitz iii-monowitz, a labor camp created to staff a factory for the chemical conglomerate ig farben; and dozens of subcamps.[3] the camps became a major site of the nazis' final solution to the jewish question.

    after germany sparked world war ii by invading poland in september 1939, the schutzstaffel (ss) converted auschwitz i, an army barracks, into a prisoner-of-war camp for polish political prisoners.[4] the first inmates, german criminals brought to the camp in may 1940 as functionaries, established the camp's reputation for sadism, beating, torturing, and executing prisoners for the most trivial reasons. the first gassings—of soviet and polish prisoners—took place in block 11 of auschwitz i around august 1941. construction of auschwitz ii began the following month, and from 1942 until late 1944 freight trains delivered jews from all over german-occupied europe to its gas chambers. of the 1.3 million people sent to auschwitz, 1.1 million died. the death toll includes 960,000 jews (865,000 of whom were gassed on arrival), 74,000 non-jewish poles, 21,000 roma, 15,000 soviet prisoners of war, and up to 15,000 other europeans.[5] those not gassed died of starvation, exhaustion, disease, individual executions, or beatings. others were killed during medical experiments.

    at least 802 prisoners tried to escape, 144 successfully, and on 7 october 1944 two sonderkommando units, consisting of prisoners who staffed the gas chambers, launched an unsuccessful uprising. only 789 staff (no more than 15 percent) ever stood trial;[6] several, including camp commandant rudolf höss, were executed. the allies' failure to act on early reports of atrocities in the camp by bombing it or its railways remains controversial.

    as the soviet red army approached auschwitz in january 1945, toward the end of the war, the ss sent most of the camp's population west on a death march to camps inside germany and austria. soviet troops entered the camp on 27 january 1945, a day commemorated since 2005 as international holocaust remembrance day. in the decades after the war, survivors such as primo levi, viktor frankl, and elie wiesel wrote memoirs of their experiences, and the camp became a dominant symbol of the holocaust. in 1947 poland founded the auschwitz-birkenau state museum on the site of auschwitz i and ii, and in 1979 it was named a world heritage site by unesco.

  • background
  • camps
  • life in the camps
  • selection and extermination process
  • resistance, escapes, liberation
  • after the war
  • see also
  • sources
  • further reading
  • external links

Auschwitz
Nazi concentration and extermination camp (1940–1945)
Auschwitz I (22 May 2010).jpg
Birkenau múzeum - panoramio (cropped).jpg
Top: Gate to Auschwitz I with its Arbeit macht frei sign ("work sets you free")
Bottom: Auschwitz II-Birkenau gatehouse; the train track, in operation May–October 1944, led directly to the gas chambers.[1]
VideoDrone footage, 2015
ImagesGoogle Earth
Coordinates50°02′09″N 19°10′42″E / 50°02′09″N 19°10′42″E / 50.03583; 19.17833); also KL Auschwitz or KZ Auschwitz
Known forThe Holocaust
LocationGerman-occupied Poland
Operated byNazi Germany and the Schutzstaffel
Founding commandantRudolf Höss
Original useArmy barracks
OperationalMay 1940 – January 1945
InmatesMainly Jews, Poles, Romani, Soviet prisoners of war
Number of inmatesAt least 1.3 million[2]
KilledAt least 1.1 million[2]
Liberated bySoviet Union, 27 January 1945
Notable inmatesCategory:Auschwitz prisoners: Adolf Burger, Anne Frank, Viktor Frankl, Imre Kertész, Maximilian Kolbe, Primo Levi, Fritz Löhner-Beda, Irène Némirovsky, Witold Pilecki, Edith Stein, Simone Veil, Rudolf Vrba, Alfréd Wetzler, Elie Wiesel, Else Ury
Notable books
Websiteauschwitz.org/en/
Official nameAuschwitz Birkenau, German Nazi Concentration and Extermination Camp (1940–1945)
TypeCultural
Criteriavi
Designated1979 (3rd 31
RegionEurope and North America

The Auschwitz concentration camp (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was a complex of over 40 concentration and extermination camps operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II and the Holocaust. It consisted of Auschwitz I, the main camp (Stammlager) in Oświęcim; Auschwitz II-Birkenau, a concentration and extermination camp built with several gas chambers; Auschwitz III-Monowitz, a labor camp created to staff a factory for the chemical conglomerate IG Farben; and dozens of subcamps.[3] The camps became a major site of the Nazis' Final Solution to the Jewish Question.

After Germany sparked World War II by invading Poland in September 1939, the Schutzstaffel (SS) converted Auschwitz I, an army barracks, into a prisoner-of-war camp for Polish political prisoners.[4] The first inmates, German criminals brought to the camp in May 1940 as functionaries, established the camp's reputation for sadism, beating, torturing, and executing prisoners for the most trivial reasons. The first gassings—of Soviet and Polish prisoners—took place in block 11 of Auschwitz I around August 1941. Construction of Auschwitz II began the following month, and from 1942 until late 1944 freight trains delivered Jews from all over German-occupied Europe to its gas chambers. Of the 1.3 million people sent to Auschwitz, 1.1 million died. The death toll includes 960,000 Jews (865,000 of whom were gassed on arrival), 74,000 non-Jewish Poles, 21,000 Roma, 15,000 Soviet prisoners of war, and up to 15,000 other Europeans.[5] Those not gassed died of starvation, exhaustion, disease, individual executions, or beatings. Others were killed during medical experiments.

At least 802 prisoners tried to escape, 144 successfully, and on 7 October 1944 two Sonderkommando units, consisting of prisoners who staffed the gas chambers, launched an unsuccessful uprising. Only 789 staff (no more than 15 percent) ever stood trial;[6] several, including camp commandant Rudolf Höss, were executed. The Allies' failure to act on early reports of atrocities in the camp by bombing it or its railways remains controversial.

As the Soviet Red Army approached Auschwitz in January 1945, toward the end of the war, the SS sent most of the camp's population west on a death march to camps inside Germany and Austria. Soviet troops entered the camp on 27 January 1945, a day commemorated since 2005 as International Holocaust Remembrance Day. In the decades after the war, survivors such as Primo Levi, Viktor Frankl, and Elie Wiesel wrote memoirs of their experiences, and the camp became a dominant symbol of the Holocaust. In 1947 Poland founded the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum on the site of Auschwitz I and II, and in 1979 it was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

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asturianu: Auschwitz
беларуская: Асвенцім
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Асьвенцім
català: Auschwitz
čeština: Auschwitz
Cymraeg: Auschwitz
Deutsch: KZ Auschwitz
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հայերեն: Օսվենցիմ
Bahasa Indonesia: Kamp konsentrasi Auschwitz
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עברית: אושוויץ
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Lëtzebuergesch: KZ Auschwitz
lumbaart: Auschwitz (KZ)
македонски: Аушвиц
Bahasa Melayu: Kem tahanan Auschwitz
монгол: Аушвиц
norsk: Auschwitz
norsk nynorsk: Auschwitz
português: Auschwitz
русский: Освенцим
српски / srpski: Логор Аушвиц
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Auschwitz (koncentracioni logor)
suomi: Auschwitz
svenska: Auschwitz
татарча/tatarça: Osventsim
українська: Аушвіц
ייִדיש: אוישוויץ