german network of concentration and extermination camps in occupied poland during world war ii
"auschwitz", "auschwitz-birkenau", and "birkenau" redirect here. for other uses, see auschwitz (disambiguation) and birkenau (disambiguation).
nazi concentration and extermination camp (1940–1945)
top: gate to auschwitz i with its arbeit macht frei sign ("work sets you free")bottom:auschwitz ii-birkenau gatehouse; the train track, in operation may–october 1944, led directly to the gas chambers.
drone footage, 2015
50°02′09″n19°10′42″e / 50°02′09″n19°10′42″e / 50.03583; 19.17833); also kl auschwitz or kz auschwitz
nazi germany and the schutzstaffel
may 1940 – january 1945
mainly jews, poles, romani, soviet prisoners of war
number of inmates
at least 1.3 million
at least 1.1 million
soviet union, 27 january 1945
category:auschwitz prisoners: adolf burger, anne frank, viktor frankl, imre kertész, maximilian kolbe, primo levi, fritz löhner-beda, irène némirovsky, witold pilecki, edith stein, simone veil, rudolf vrba, alfréd wetzler, elie wiesel, else ury
man's search for meaning (1946)
if this is a man (1947)
unesco world heritage site
auschwitz birkenau, german nazi concentration and extermination camp (1940–1945)
1979 (3rd 31
europe and north america
the auschwitz concentration camp (konzentrationslager auschwitz) was a complex of over 40 concentration and extermination camps operated by nazi germany in occupied poland during world war ii and the holocaust. it consisted of auschwitz i, the main camp (stammlager) in oświęcim; auschwitz ii-birkenau, a concentration and extermination camp built with several gas chambers; auschwitz iii-monowitz, a labor camp created to staff a factory for the chemical conglomerate ig farben; and dozens of subcamps. the camps became a major site of the nazis' final solution to the jewish question.
after germany sparked world war ii by invading poland in september 1939, the schutzstaffel (ss) converted auschwitz i, an army barracks, into a prisoner-of-war camp for polish political prisoners. the first inmates, german criminals brought to the camp in may 1940 as functionaries, established the camp's reputation for sadism, beating, torturing, and executing prisoners for the most trivial reasons. the first gassings—of soviet and polish prisoners—took place in block 11 of auschwitz i around august 1941. construction of auschwitz ii began the following month, and from 1942 until late 1944 freight trains delivered jews from all over german-occupied europe to its gas chambers. of the 1.3 million people sent to auschwitz, 1.1 million died. the death toll includes 960,000 jews (865,000 of whom were gassed on arrival), 74,000 non-jewish poles, 21,000 roma, 15,000 soviet prisoners of war, and up to 15,000 other europeans. those not gassed died of starvation, exhaustion, disease, individual executions, or beatings. others were killed during medical experiments.
at least 802 prisoners tried to escape, 144 successfully, and on 7 october 1944 two sonderkommando units, consisting of prisoners who staffed the gas chambers, launched an unsuccessful uprising. only 789 staff (no more than 15 percent) ever stood trial; several, including camp commandant rudolf höss, were executed. the allies' failure to act on early reports of atrocities in the camp by bombing it or its railways remains controversial.
as the soviet red army approached auschwitz in january 1945, toward the end of the war, the ss sent most of the camp's population west on a death march to camps inside germany and austria. soviet troops entered the camp on 27 january 1945, a day commemorated since 2005 as international holocaust remembrance day. in the decades after the war, survivors such as primo levi, viktor frankl, and elie wiesel wrote memoirs of their experiences, and the camp became a dominant symbol of the holocaust. in 1947 poland founded the auschwitz-birkenau state museum on the site of auschwitz i and ii, and in 1979 it was named a world heritage site by unesco.
After Germany sparked World War II by invading Poland in September 1939, the Schutzstaffel (SS) converted Auschwitz I, an army barracks, into a prisoner-of-war camp for Polish political prisoners. The first inmates, German criminals brought to the camp in May 1940 as functionaries, established the camp's reputation for sadism, beating, torturing, and executing prisoners for the most trivial reasons. The first gassings—of Soviet and Polish prisoners—took place in block 11 of Auschwitz I around August 1941. Construction of Auschwitz II began the following month, and from 1942 until late 1944 freight trains delivered Jews from all over German-occupied Europe to its gas chambers. Of the 1.3 million people sent to Auschwitz, 1.1 million died. The death toll includes 960,000 Jews (865,000 of whom were gassed on arrival), 74,000 non-Jewish Poles, 21,000 Roma, 15,000 Soviet prisoners of war, and up to 15,000 other Europeans. Those not gassed died of starvation, exhaustion, disease, individual executions, or beatings. Others were killed during medical experiments.
At least 802 prisoners tried to escape, 144 successfully, and on 7 October 1944 two Sonderkommando units, consisting of prisoners who staffed the gas chambers, launched an unsuccessful uprising. Only 789 staff (no more than 15 percent) ever stood trial; several, including camp commandant Rudolf Höss, were executed. The Allies' failure to act on early reports of atrocities in the camp by bombing it or its railways remains controversial.