Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean
Map of the Atlantic Ocean
Coordinates0°N 25°W / 0°N 25°W / 0; -25[1]
Basin countriesList of countries, ports
Surface area106,460,000 km2 (41,100,000 sq mi)[2][3]
North Atlantic: 41,490,000 km2 (16,020,000 sq mi),
South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2 (15,550,000 sq mi)[4]
Average depth3,646 m (11,962 ft)[4]
Max. depth8,486 m (27,841 ft)[4]
Water volume310,410,900 km3 (74,471,500 cu mi)[4]
Shore length1111,866 km (69,510 mi) including marginal seas[1]
IslandsList of islands
TrenchesPuerto Rico; South Sandwich; Romanche
1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.
This video was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 on board the ISS. The pass starts from just northeast of the island of Newfoundland over the North Atlantic Ocean to central Africa, over South Sudan.

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers (41,100,000 square miles).[2][3] It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World".

The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west. As one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, and the Southern Ocean in the south (other definitions describe the Atlantic as extending southward to Antarctica). The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N.[5]

Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office.[5]

Etymology

The Aethiopian Ocean in a 1710 French map of Africa

The oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC (Sch. A. R. 1. 211):[6] Atlantikoi pelágei (Greek: Ἀτλαντικῷ πελάγει; English: 'the Atlantic sea'; etym. 'Sea of Atlantis') and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC (Hdt. 1.202.4): Atlantis thalassa (Greek: Ἀτλαντὶς θάλασσα; English: 'Sea of Atlantis' or 'the Atlantis sea'[7]) where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles" which is said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.[8] Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who later appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and also lent his name to modern atlases.[9] On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world; in contrast to the enclosed seas well-known to the Greeks: the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.[10] In contrast, the term "Atlantic" originally referred specifically to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast.[9] The Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of million years ago.

The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century.[11] During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was also known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean.[12]

Other Languages
адыгабзэ: Атлант Океан
Alemannisch: Atlantik
aragonés: Ocián Atlantico
azərbaycanca: Atlantik okean
bamanankan: Atlantik Kogoji
Bahasa Banjar: Lautan Atlantik
Bân-lâm-gú: Tāi-se-iûⁿ
башҡортса: Атлантик океан
беларуская: Атлантычны акіян
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Атлянтычны акіян
Bikol Central: Kadagatan Atlantiko
bosanski: Atlantski okean
brezhoneg: Meurvor Atlantel
davvisámegiella: Atlánta
dolnoserbski: Atlantiski ocean
Esperanto: Atlantiko
estremeñu: Oceanu Alánticu
Fiji Hindi: Atlantic Ocean
føroyskt: Atlantshavið
Fulfulde: Atalantik
Gàidhlig: Cuan Siar
贛語: 大西洋
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thai-sî-yòng
한국어: 대서양
hornjoserbsce: Atlantiski ocean
hrvatski: Atlantski ocean
Bahasa Indonesia: Samudra Atlantik
interlingua: Oceano Atlantic
Interlingue: Atlántic Ocean
íslenska: Atlantshaf
kernowek: Keynvor Iwerydh
Kiswahili: Atlantiki
Kreyòl ayisyen: Oseyan atlantik
кырык мары: Атланти океан
Lëtzebuergesch: Atlanteschen Ozean
lingála: Atlantíki
Livvinkarjala: Atlantan valdumeri
lumbaart: Ucean Atlantich
македонски: Атлантски Океан
მარგალური: ატლანტიშ ოკიანე
مازِرونی: اطلس اوقیانوس
Bahasa Melayu: Lautan Atlantik
Baso Minangkabau: Samudra Atlantik
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Dâi-să̤-iòng
Nederlands: Atlantische Oceaan
Nedersaksies: Atlantische Ozeoan
日本語: 大西洋
Napulitano: Oceano Atlanteco
Norfuk / Pitkern: Etlantic Oshen
norsk nynorsk: Atlanterhavet
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Atlantika okeani
Pangasinan: Dayat Atlantic
Papiamentu: Oceano Atlantiko
Перем Коми: Атлантика океан
Piemontèis: Océan Atlàntich
Tok Pisin: Solwara Atlantik
Plattdüütsch: Atlantik
português: Oceano Atlântico
Qaraqalpaqsha: Atlantika okeanı
qırımtatarca: Atlantik okean
rumantsch: Ocean Atlantic
русиньскый: Атлантічный океан
саха тыла: Атлантик океан
Gagana Samoa: Vasa Atalani
Sesotho sa Leboa: Atlantic Ocean
Simple English: Atlantic Ocean
slovenčina: Atlantický oceán
slovenščina: Atlantski ocean
српски / srpski: Атлантски океан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Atlantik
Basa Sunda: Samudra Atlantik
svenska: Atlanten
Taqbaylit: Agaraw Aṭlasi
tarandíne: Oceane Atlàndeche
татарча/tatarça: Атлантик океан
Türkçe: Atlas Okyanusu
Türkmençe: Atlantik okean
тыва дыл: Атлант океан
українська: Атлантичний океан
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئاتلانتىك ئوكيان
Vahcuengh: Dasihyangz
vepsän kel’: Atlantine valdmeri
Tiếng Việt: Đại Tây Dương
West-Vlams: Atlantischn Oceoan
吴语: 大西洋
粵語: 大西洋
žemaitėška: Atlanta ondėnīns
中文: 大西洋
Lingua Franca Nova: Mar Atlantica