Assault usually accompanies
battery if the assailant both threatens to make unwanted contact and then carries through with this threat. See
common assault. The elements of battery are (1) a volitional act
 (2) done for the purpose of causing a harmful or offensive contact with another person or under circumstances that make such contact substantially certain to occur and (3) which causes such contact.
 Thus throwing a rock at someone for the purpose of hitting him is a battery if the rock in fact strikes the person, and is an assault if the rock misses.
Aggravated assault is, in some jurisdictions, a stronger form of assault, usually using a
 A person has committed an aggravated assault when that person attempts to:
- cause serious bodily injury to another person with a deadly weapon
- have sexual relations with a person who is under the age of consent
- cause bodily harm by recklessly operating a
motor vehicle during
road rage; often referred to as either vehicular assault or aggravated assault with a motor vehicle.
Aggravated assault can also be charged in cases of attempted harm against police officers or other public servants.