Pursuing enlightenment, Buddha first practiced severe asceticism before recommending a non-ascetic middle way.[1] In Christianity, Francis of Assisi and his followers practiced extreme acts of asceticism.[2]

Asceticism (əm/; from the Greek: ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals. Ascetics may withdraw from the world for their practices or continue to be part of their society, but typically adopt a frugal lifestyle, characterised by the renunciation of material possessions and physical pleasures, and time spent fasting while concentrating on the practice of religion or reflection upon spiritual matters.[3]

Asceticism has been historically observed in many religious traditions, including Buddhism, Jainism, Hinduism, Christianity, and Judaism. Contemporary mainstream Islam practices asceticism in the form of fasting during Ramadan by abstaining from all sensual pleasures, including food and water from sunrise until sunset. The observation of fasting during Ramadan is purely done for God and to increase one's spiritual connection with God; it is compulsory for all Muslims to fast as it is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. Sufi tradition has included strict asceticism throughout history.[4][5] The practitioners of these religions abandoned sensual pleasures and led an abstinent lifestyle, in the pursuit of redemption,[6] salvation or spirituality.[7] Asceticism is seen in the ancient theologies as a journey towards spiritual transformation, where the simple is sufficient, the bliss is within, the frugal is plenty.[3] Inversely, several ancient religious traditions, such as Zoroastrianism, Ancient Egyptian Religion[8] and the Dionysian Mysteries, as well as more modern Left Hand traditions, openly reject ascetic practises and focus on various types of hedonism.

Etymology and meaning

The adjective "ascetic" derives from the ancient Greek term askēsis, which means "training" or "exercise". The original usage did not refer to self-denial, but to the physical training required for athletic events. Its usage later extended to rigorous practices used in many major religious traditions, in varying degrees, to attain redemption and higher spirituality.[9]

Dom Cuthbert Butler classified asceticism into natural and unnatural forms:[10]

  • "Natural asceticism" involves a lifestyle which reduces material aspects of life to the utmost simplicity and to a minimum. This may include minimal, simple clothing, sleeping on a floor or in caves, and eating a simple minimal amount of food.[10] Natural asceticism, state Wimbush and Valantasis, does not include maiming the body or harsher austerities that make the body suffer.[10]
  • "Unnatural asceticism", in contrast, covers practices that go further, and involves body mortification, punishing one's own flesh, and habitual self-infliction of pain - such as by sleeping on a bed of nails.[10]
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Askese
العربية: زهد
asturianu: Ascetismu
azərbaycanca: Askentizm
български: Аскетизъм
буряад: Даяанша
català: Ascetisme
čeština: Askeze
Cymraeg: Asgetigiaeth
dansk: Askese
Deutsch: Askese
eesti: Askees
español: Ascetismo
Esperanto: Asketismo
euskara: Aszetismo
français: Ascèse
galego: Ascetismo
한국어: 금욕주의
հայերեն: Ասկետիզմ
hrvatski: Askeza
Bahasa Indonesia: Asketisme
interlingua: Ascetismo
italiano: Ascetismo
עברית: סיגוף
ქართული: ასკეტიზმი
қазақша: Аскетизм
Кыргызча: Аскетизм
Latina: Ascesis
latviešu: Askēze
Lëtzebuergesch: Askes
lietuvių: Asketizmas
magyar: Aszkézis
Nederlands: Ascese
日本語: 禁欲主義
norsk: Askese
norsk nynorsk: Askese
occitan: Ascetisme
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Asketizm
polski: Ascetyzm
português: Ascese
română: Asceză
русский: Аскеза
Scots: Asceticism
shqip: Asketizmi
Simple English: Asceticism
slovenščina: Askeza
српски / srpski: Аскеза
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Askeza
suomi: Asketismi
svenska: Askes
татарча/tatarça: Тәкъвачылык
Türkçe: Çilecilik
українська: Аскетизм
Tiếng Việt: Khổ tu
中文: 禁慾主義