Armenia (/ (
translit. Hayastan, IPA:
[hɑjɑsˈtɑn]), officially the Republic of Armenia (
Armenian: Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն,
translit. Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun, IPA:
[hɑjɑstɑˈni hɑnɾɑpɛtutʰˈjun]), is a
country in the
South Caucasus region of
Eurasia. Located in West Asia
 on the
Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by
Turkey to the west,
Georgia to the north, the de facto independent
Republic of Artsakh and
Azerbaijan to the east, and
Iran and Azerbaijan's
Nakhchivan to the south.
Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic
nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage.
Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the
Satrapy of Armenia. The
Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under
Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt
Christianity as its
official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD.
 The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301.
 The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the
Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the
Bagratuni dynasty, the
Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the
Seljuk Turks. An Armenian principality and later a kingdom
Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the
Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries.
Between the 16th century and 19th century, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of
Eastern Armenia and
Western Armenia came under the rule of the
Iranian empires, repeatedly ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the
Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During
World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the
Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the
Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the
First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the
Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, and in 1922 became a founding member of the
Soviet Union. In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full
Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the
dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Republic of Armenia recognises the
Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment.
 The unique
Armenian alphabet was invented by
Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD.
Armenia is a member of the
Eurasian Economic Union, the
Council of Europe and the
Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent
Republic of Artsakh, which was proclaimed in 1991.