Argentina

Argentine Republic[A]
República Argentina  (Spanish)
Motto: 
Anthem: 
Sol de Mayo[2]
(Sun of May)

Sol de Mayo
Location of  Argentina  (dark green)in South America  (grey)
Location of  Argentina  (dark green)

in South America  (grey)

Capital
and largest city
Buenos Aires
34°36′S 58°23′W / 34°36′S 58°23′W / -34.600; -58.383
Official languagesNone
National languageSpanish[a]
Regional languages

Guarani in Corrientes;[3]

Qom, Mocoví and Wichí in Chaco[4]
Ethnic groups
Religion
Demonym
GovernmentFederal presidential constitutional republic
• President
Mauricio Macri
Gabriela Michetti
LegislatureCongress
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Independence from Spain
May 25, 1810
• Declared
July 9, 1816
May 1, 1853
Area
• Total
2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi)[B] (8th)
• Water (%)
1.57
Population
• 2016 estimate
43,847,430[12]
• 2010 census
40,117,096[11] (32nd)
• Density
14.4/km2 (37.3/sq mi)[11] (214th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$959.528 billion[13] (25th)
• Per capita
$21,528[13] (56th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$625.921 billion[13] (21st)
• Per capita
$14,043[13] (53rd)
Gini (2016)Positive decrease 42.4[14]
medium
HDI (2017)Decrease 0.825[15]
very high · 47th
CurrencyPeso ($) (ARS)
Time zoneUTC−3 (ART)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy (CE)
Drives on theright[b]
Calling code+54
ISO 3166 codeAR
Internet TLD.ar
  1. ^ Though not declared official de jure, the Spanish language is the only one used in the wording of laws, decrees, resolutions, official documents and public acts.
  2. ^ Trains driven on left.

Argentina (About this sound pronunciation  Spanish: [aɾxenˈtina]), officially the Argentine Republic[A] (Spanish: República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi),[B] Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, and the largest Spanish-speaking nation. It is subdivided into twenty-three provinces (Spanish: provincias, singular provincia) and one autonomous city (ciudad autónoma), Buenos Aires, which is the federal capital of the nation (Spanish: Capital Federal) as decided by Congress.[16] The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas), and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.

The earliest recorded human presence in the area of modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period.[17] The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.[18] Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata,[19] a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence (1810–1818) was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with massive waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world by the early 20th century.[20][21]

After 1930, Argentina descended into political instability and periodic economic crises that pushed it back into underdevelopment,[22] though it nevertheless remained among the fifteen richest countries until the mid-20th century.[20] Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his wife Isabel Martínez de Perón ascended to the presidency. She was overthrown in 1976 a U.S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship under Jorge Rafael Videla known as the National Reorganization Process, which lasted until the transition to democracy in 1983; the military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics, activists, and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism which lasted until the junta's dissolution. Public dissent and anger over the dictatorship's repressions led to a transition to democracy in 1983 when Raúl Alfonsín was elected President; several of the junta's leaders were later convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina retains its historic status as a middle power[23] in international affairs, and is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America.[24][25] Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America and is a member of the G-15 and G-20 major economies. It is also a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Mercosur, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. It is the country with the second highest Human Development Index in Latin America with a rating of "very high".[26] Because of its stability, market size and growing high-tech sector,[27] Argentina is classified as a high-income economy in the 2019 fiscal year.[28]

Name and etymology

The description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.[29]

In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina (masculine argentino) means in Italian "(made) of silver, silver coloured", probably borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine "(made) of silver" > "silver coloured" already mentioned in the 12th century.[30] The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in (same construction as Old French acerin "(made) of steel", from acier "steel" + -in or sapin "(made) of fir wood", from OF sap "fir" + -in). The Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina.

The name Argentina was probably first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are respectively plata and prata and "(made) of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.[31]

The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina,[C] a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region.[32] Although "Argentina" was already in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, and "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence.

The 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents.[33] The name "Argentine Confederation" was also commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853.[34] In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic",[35] and that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as legally valid.[36][D]

In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina[37] and perhaps resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name 'Argentine Republic'. 'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, and now the country is simply referred to as "Argentina".

In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine ("La [República] Argentina"), taking the feminine article "La" as the initial syllable of "Argentina" is unstressed.[38]

Other Languages
Acèh: Argentina
Адыгэбзэ: Архентинэ
адыгабзэ: Аргентинэ
Afrikaans: Argentinië
Alemannisch: Argentinien
አማርኛ: አርጀንቲና
Ænglisc: Argentina
العربية: الأرجنتين
aragonés: Archentina
armãneashti: Arghentina
arpetan: Argentina
অসমীয়া: আৰ্জেণ্টিনা
asturianu: Arxentina
Avañe'ẽ: Argentína
Aymar aru: Arxintina
azərbaycanca: Argentina
تۆرکجه: آرژانتین
bamanankan: Argentina
Bân-lâm-gú: Argentina
башҡортса: Аргентина
беларуская: Аргенціна
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Аргентына
भोजपुरी: अर्जेंटाइना
Bikol Central: Argentina
Bislama: Argentina
български: Аржентина
Boarisch: Argentinien
bosanski: Argentina
brezhoneg: Arc'hantina
буряад: Аргентинэ
català: Argentina
Чӑвашла: Аргентина
Cebuano: Arhentina
čeština: Argentina
Chamoru: Argentina
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Argentina
chiShona: Argentina
chiTumbuka: Argentina
corsu: Argentina
Cymraeg: Yr Ariannin
dansk: Argentina
davvisámegiella: Argentiinná
Deitsch: Artschenti
Deutsch: Argentinien
ދިވެހިބަސް: އާޖެންޓީނާ
dolnoserbski: Argentinska
eesti: Argentina
Ελληνικά: Αργεντινή
español: Argentina
Esperanto: Argentino
estremeñu: Argentina
euskara: Argentina
eʋegbe: Argentina
فارسی: آرژانتین
Fiji Hindi: Argentina
føroyskt: Argentina
français: Argentine
Frysk: Argentynje
furlan: Argjentine
Gaeilge: An Airgintín
Gagauz: Argentina
Gàidhlig: An Argantain
galego: Arxentina
贛語: 阿根廷
Gĩkũyũ: Argentina
ગુજરાતી: આર્જેન્ટીના
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: आर्जेन्टिना
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Argentina
한국어: 아르헨티나
Hausa: Argentina
Hawaiʻi: ‘Alekina
հայերեն: Արգենտինա
hornjoserbsce: Argentinska
hrvatski: Argentina
Igbo: Argentina
Ilokano: Arhentina
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: আর্জেন্টিনা
Bahasa Indonesia: Argentina
interlingua: Argentina
Interlingue: Argentina
isiZulu: I-Arjentina
íslenska: Argentína
italiano: Argentina
עברית: ארגנטינה
Basa Jawa: Argèntina
kalaallisut: Argentina
Kapampangan: Argentina
къарачай-малкъар: Аргентина
ქართული: არგენტინა
kaszëbsczi: Argentina
қазақша: Аргентина
kernowek: Arghantina
Kinyarwanda: Arijantine
Kirundi: Argentine
Kiswahili: Argentina
Kongo: Arhentina
Kreyòl ayisyen: Ajantin
kurdî: Arjentîn
Кыргызча: Аргентина
кырык мары: Аргентина
Ladino: Arjentina
лезги: Аргентина
لۊری شومالی: آرجانتین
latgaļu: Argeņtina
Latina: Argentina
latviešu: Argentīna
Lëtzebuergesch: Argentinien
lietuvių: Argentina
Ligure: Argentinn-a
Limburgs: Argentinië
lingála: Argentina
Livvinkarjala: Argentiinu
la .lojban.: getygu'e
lumbaart: Argentina
magyar: Argentína
македонски: Аргентина
Malagasy: Arjentina
മലയാളം: അർജന്റീന
Malti: Arġentina
Māori: Āketina
მარგალური: არგენტინა
مصرى: ارجنتين
مازِرونی: آرژانتین
Bahasa Melayu: Argentina
Baso Minangkabau: Argentina
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Argentina
Mirandés: Argentina
монгол: Аргентин
Nāhuatl: Argentina
Dorerin Naoero: Ardjentina
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Argentina
Nederlands: Argentinië
Nedersaksies: Argentinië
नेपाल भाषा: अर्जेन्तिना
Napulitano: Argentina
нохчийн: Аргентина
Nordfriisk: Argentiinien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Aajentiina
norsk: Argentina
norsk nynorsk: Argentina
Nouormand: Argentinne
Novial: Argentina
occitan: Argentina
олык марий: Аргентина
Oromoo: Arjentiinaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Argentina
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਅਰਜਨਟੀਨਾ
Pälzisch: Argentinje
Pangasinan: Argentina
پنجابی: ارجنٹاین
Papiamentu: Argentina
Patois: Aajentiina
Piemontèis: Argentin-a
Tok Pisin: Ajentina
Plattdüütsch: Argentinien
polski: Argentyna
português: Argentina
Qaraqalpaqsha: Argentina
qırımtatarca: Argentina
reo tahiti: ’Atetina
română: Argentina
Romani: Arxentina
rumantsch: Argentinia
Runa Simi: Arhintina
русиньскый: Арґентина
русский: Аргентина
саха тыла: Аргентина
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱟᱨᱡᱮᱱᱴᱤᱱᱟ
Gagana Samoa: Atenitina
संस्कृतम्: अर्जण्टिना
sardu: Argentina
Scots: Argentinae
Seeltersk: Argentinien
Sesotho sa Leboa: Argentina
shqip: Argjentina
sicilianu: Argintina
Simple English: Argentina
slovenčina: Argentína
slovenščina: Argentina
ślůnski: Argyntyna
Soomaaliga: Arjantiina
کوردی: ئەرژەنتین
Sranantongo: Argentinikondre
српски / srpski: Аргентина
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Argentina
Basa Sunda: Argéntina
suomi: Argentiina
svenska: Argentina
Tagalog: Arhentina
Taqbaylit: Tarjentint
tarandíne: Argendine
татарча/tatarça: Аргентина
తెలుగు: అర్జెంటీనా
tetun: Arjentina
ትግርኛ: አርጀንቲና
тоҷикӣ: Аргентина
Türkçe: Arjantin
Türkmençe: Argentina
тыва дыл: Аргентина
удмурт: Аргентина
українська: Аргентина
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئارگېنتىنا
Vahcuengh: Argentina
vèneto: Argentina
vepsän kel’: Argentin
Tiếng Việt: Argentina
Volapük: Largäntän
Võro: Argentina
文言: 阿根廷
West-Vlams: Argentinië
Winaray: Argentina
Wolof: Arsantin
吴语: 阿根廷
Xitsonga: Arjentina
ייִדיש: ארגענטינע
Yorùbá: Argẹntínà
粵語: 阿根廷
Zazaki: Arcantin
Zeêuws: Arhentinië
žemaitėška: Argentėna
中文: 阿根廷
ГӀалгӀай: Аргентина
Kabɩyɛ: Arzantiini
Lingua Franca Nova: Arjentina