Archbasilica of St. John Lateran

Archbasilica of St. John Lateran
Major Papal, Patriarchal and Roman Archbasilica Cathedral of the Most Holy Savior and Saints John the Baptist and the Evangelist in Lateran, Mother and Head of All Churches in Rome and in the World
  • Arcibasilica Papale Romana Maggiore di San Giovanni in Laterano  (Italian)
  • Archibasilica Sanctissimi Salvatoris ac Sancti Ioannis Baptistae et Ioannis Evangelistae ad Lateranum  (Latin)
Ornate facade of the basilica at night with columns, main door, and statues of the twelve Apostles on the roofline, with a Latin inscription below them
Façade of the Archbasilica of St. John in Lateran
Map of the city of Rome with a red dot on the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran
Map of the city of Rome with a red dot on the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran
Archbasilica of St. John Lateran
Location of the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran in Rome
41°53′9″N 12°30′20″E / 41°53′9″N 12°30′20″E / 41.88583; 12.50556
Specifications
Length140 metres (460 ft)
Width140 metres (460 ft)
Nave width65 metres (213 ft)
MaterialsMarble, granite, and cement
Administration
DioceseDiocese of Rome
Clergy
Bishop(s)Pope Francis
ArchpriestAngelo De Donatis
Official nameHistoric Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura
TypeCultural
Criteriai, ii, iii, iv, vi
Designated1980 (4th 91
State PartyItaly and Holy See
RegionEurope and North America

The Cathedral of the Most Holy Savior and of Saints John the Baptist and the Evangelist in the Lateran, (Italian: Santissimo Salvatore e Santi Giovanni Battista ed Evangelista in Laterano) – also known as the Papal Archbasilica of St. John [in] Lateran, St. John Lateran, or the Lateran Basilica – is the cathedral church of Rome and serves as the seat of the Roman Pontiff.

It is the oldest and highest ranking of the four papal major basilicas, giving it the unique title of "archbasilica". Because it is the oldest public church in the city of Rome, it is the oldest and most important basilica of the Western world,[2] and houses the cathedra of the Roman bishop,[3][4] it has the title of ecumenical mother church of the Catholic faithful.

The current archpriest is Angelo De Donatis, Vicar General for the Diocese of Rome.[5] The President of the French Republic, currently Emmanuel Macron, is ex officio the "first and only honorary canon" of the archbasilica, a title that the heads of state of France have possessed since King Henry IV.

The large Latin inscription on the façade reads: Clemens XII Pont Max Anno V Christo Salvatori In Hon SS Ioan Bapt et Evang. This abbreviated inscription translates to: "Pope Clement XII, in the fifth year [of his Pontificate, dedicated this building] to Christ the Savior, in honor of Saints John the Baptist and [John] the Evangelist".[6] The inscription indicates, with its full title (see below), that the archbasilica was originally dedicated to Christ the Savior and, centuries later, co-dedicated to St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist. As the Cathedral of the Pope as Bishop of Rome, it ranks superior to all other churches of the Roman Catholic Church, including St. Peter's Basilica.

The archbasilica is sited in the City of Rome. It is outside Vatican City, which is approximately 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) to its northwest, although the archbasilica and its adjoining edifices have extraterritorial status from Italy as one of the properties of the Holy See, pursuant to the Lateran Treaty of 1929.[1]

Name

Next to the formal entrance is the archbasilica's declaration to be the head, or Mother Church, of the entire world. Note the laurel wreath and the Papal tiara.

The archbasilica's Latin name is Archibasilica Sanctissimi Salvatoris ac Sancti Ioannis Baptistae et Ioannis Evangelistae ad Lateranum,[7] which in English is the Archbasilica of the Most Holy Savior and Saints John the Baptist and John the Evangelist at the Lateran, and in Italian Arcibasilica [Papale] del Santissimo Salvatore e Santi Giovanni Battista ed Evangelista in Laterano.[5]

Other Languages
Lëtzebuergesch: San Giovanni in Laterano
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bazilika sv. Ivana Lateranskog