Arab Spring

  • arab spring
    infobox collage for mena protests.png
    clockwise from the upper left corner:
    protesters gathered at tahrir square in cairo, egypt february 9, 2011;
    habib bourguiba boulevard, protesters in tunis, tunisia january 14, 2011;
    dissidents in sana'a, yemen calling for president ali abdullah saleh to resign on february 3, 2011;
    crowds of hundreds of thousands in damas, syria
    date17 december 2010 – december 2012
    location
    north africa, middle east (i.e. mena or "arab world")
    caused by
    • authoritarianism
    • monarchy
    • demographic structural factors
    • 2000s energy crisis
    • political corruption
    • human rights violations
    • unemployment
    • inflation
    • kleptocracy
    • poverty
    • sectarianism
    • self-immolation of mohamed bouazizi
    goals
    • democracy
    • free elections
    • economic freedom
    • human rights
    • employment
    • regime change
    • secularism
    • islamism
    methods
    • civil disobedience
    • civil resistance
    • demonstrations
    • defection
    • insurgency
    • internet activism
    • mutiny
    • protests
    • protest camps
    • revolution
    • riots
    • self-immolation
    • silent protests
    • sit-ins
    • social media activism
    • strike actions
    • urban warfare
    • uprising
    resulted inarab spring concurrent incidents,
    arab winter,
    impact of the arab spring,
    and new arab spring (2018–19)
    casualties
    death(s)61,080–140,000 deaths in total (international estimate; see table below)

    the arab spring (arabic: الربيع العربي‎) was a series of anti-government protests, uprisings, and armed rebellions that spread across much of the islamic world in the early 2010s. it began in response to oppressive regimes and a low standard of living, starting with protests in tunisia (noueihed, 2011; maleki, 2011).[1][2] the protests then spread to five other countries: libya, egypt, yemen, syria and bahrain, where either the regime was toppled or major uprisings and social violence occurred, including riots, civil wars or insurgencies. sustained street demonstrations took place in morocco, iraq, algeria, iranian khuzestan,[citation needed] lebanon, jordan, kuwait, oman and sudan. minor protests occurred in djibouti, mauritania, the palestinian national authority, saudi arabia, and the moroccan-occupied western sahara.[3] a major slogan of the demonstrators in the arab world is ash-shaʻb yurīd isqāṭ an-niẓām ("the people want to bring down the regime").[4]

    the importance of external factors versus internal factors to the protests' spread and success is contested.[5] social media is one way governments try to inhibit protests. in many countries, governments shut down certain sites or blocked internet service entirely, especially in the times preceding a major rally.[6] governments also accused content creators of unrelated crimes or shutting down communication on specific sites or groups, such as facebook.[7] in the news, social media has been heralded as the driving force behind the swift spread of revolution throughout the world, as new protests appear in response to success stories shared from those taking place in other countries.

    the wave of initial revolutions and protests faded by mid-2012, as many arab spring demonstrations met with violent responses from authorities,[8][9][10] as well as from pro-government militias, counter-demonstrators and militaries. these attacks were answered with violence from protestors in some cases.[11][12][13] large-scale conflicts resulted: the syrian civil war;[14][15] the iraqi insurgency and the following civil war;[16] the egyptian crisis, coup, and subsequent unrest and insurgency;[17] the libyan civil war; and the yemeni crisis and following civil war.[18] regimes that lacked major oil wealth and hereditary succession arrangements were more likely to undergo regime change.[19]

    a power struggle continued after the immediate response to the arab spring. while leadership changed and regimes were held accountable, power vacuums opened across the arab world. ultimately it resulted in a contentious battle between a consolidation of power by religious elites and the growing support for democracy in many muslim-majority states.[20] the early hopes that these popular movements would end corruption, increase political participation, and bring about greater economic equity quickly collapsed in the wake of the counter-revolutionary moves by foreign state actors in yemen,[21] the regional and international military interventions in bahrain and yemen, and the destructive civil wars in syria, iraq, libya and yemen.[22]

    some have referred to the succeeding and still ongoing conflicts as the arab winter.[14][15][16][17][18] as of may 2018, only the uprising in tunisia has resulted in a transition to constitutional democratic governance.[3] recent uprisings in sudan and algeria show that the conditions that started the arab spring are not going away and political movements against authoritarianism and exploitation are still occurring.[23]

    in 2019 multiple uprisings and protest movements in algeria, sudan, iraq, lebanon and egypt have been seen as a continuation of the arab spring.[24][25]

  • etymology
  • causes
  • timeline
  • events leading up to the arab spring
  • the arab spring
  • major events
  • outcomes
  • arab spring: revolution or reform
  • space and the city in the arab uprisings
  • see also
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Arab Spring
Infobox collage for MENA protests.PNG
Clockwise from the upper left corner:
Protesters gathered at Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt February 9, 2011;
Habib Bourguiba Boulevard, protesters in Tunis, Tunisia January 14, 2011;
dissidents in Sana'a, Yemen calling for president Ali Abdullah Saleh to resign on February 3, 2011;
crowds of hundreds of thousands in Damas, Syria
Date17 December 2010 – December 2012
Location
Caused by
Goals
Methods
Resulted inArab Spring concurrent incidents,
Arab Winter,
Impact of the Arab Spring,
and New Arab Spring (2018–19)
Casualties
Death(s)61,080–140,000 deaths in total (International estimate; see table below)

The Arab Spring (Arabic: الربيع العربي‎) was a series of anti-government protests, uprisings, and armed rebellions that spread across much of the Islamic world in the early 2010s. It began in response to oppressive regimes and a low standard of living, starting with protests in Tunisia (Noueihed, 2011; Maleki, 2011).[1][2] The protests then spread to five other countries: Libya, Egypt, Yemen, Syria and Bahrain, where either the regime was toppled or major uprisings and social violence occurred, including riots, civil wars or insurgencies. Sustained street demonstrations took place in Morocco, Iraq, Algeria, Iranian Khuzestan,[citation needed] Lebanon, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman and Sudan. Minor protests occurred in Djibouti, Mauritania, the Palestinian National Authority, Saudi Arabia, and the Moroccan-occupied Western Sahara.[3] A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world is ash-shaʻb yurīd isqāṭ an-niẓām ("the people want to bring down the regime").[4]

The importance of external factors versus internal factors to the protests' spread and success is contested.[5] Social media is one way governments try to inhibit protests. In many countries, governments shut down certain sites or blocked Internet service entirely, especially in the times preceding a major rally.[6] Governments also accused content creators of unrelated crimes or shutting down communication on specific sites or groups, such as Facebook.[7] In the news, social media has been heralded as the driving force behind the swift spread of revolution throughout the world, as new protests appear in response to success stories shared from those taking place in other countries.

The wave of initial revolutions and protests faded by mid-2012, as many Arab Spring demonstrations met with violent responses from authorities,[8][9][10] as well as from pro-government militias, counter-demonstrators and militaries. These attacks were answered with violence from protestors in some cases.[11][12][13] Large-scale conflicts resulted: the Syrian Civil War;[14][15] the Iraqi insurgency and the following civil war;[16] the Egyptian Crisis, coup, and subsequent unrest and insurgency;[17] the Libyan Civil War; and the Yemeni Crisis and following civil war.[18] Regimes that lacked major oil wealth and hereditary succession arrangements were more likely to undergo regime change.[19]

A power struggle continued after the immediate response to the Arab Spring. While leadership changed and regimes were held accountable, power vacuums opened across the Arab world. Ultimately it resulted in a contentious battle between a consolidation of power by religious elites and the growing support for democracy in many Muslim-majority states.[20] The early hopes that these popular movements would end corruption, increase political participation, and bring about greater economic equity quickly collapsed in the wake of the counter-revolutionary moves by foreign state actors in Yemen,[21] the regional and international military interventions in Bahrain and Yemen, and the destructive civil wars in Syria, Iraq, Libya and Yemen.[22]

Some have referred to the succeeding and still ongoing conflicts as the Arab Winter.[14][15][16][17][18] As of May 2018, only the uprising in Tunisia has resulted in a transition to constitutional democratic governance.[3] Recent uprisings in Sudan and Algeria show that the conditions that started the Arab Spring are not going away and political movements against authoritarianism and exploitation are still occurring.[23]

In 2019 multiple uprisings and protest movements in Algeria, Sudan, Iraq, Lebanon and Egypt have been seen as a continuation of the Arab Spring.[24][25]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Arabiese Lente
Արեւմտահայերէն: Արաբական Գարուն
asturianu: Primavera Árabe
azərbaycanca: Ərəb baharı
বাংলা: আরব বসন্ত
башҡортса: Ғәрәп яҙы
беларуская: Арабская вясна
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Арабская вясна
čeština: Arabské jaro
Ελληνικά: Αραβική Άνοιξη
Esperanto: Araba printempo
فارسی: بهار عربی
føroyskt: Arabiska várið
français: Printemps arabe
한국어: 아랍의 봄
Bahasa Indonesia: Kebangkitan dunia Arab
íslenska: Arabíska vorið
italiano: Primavera araba
Latina: Ver Arabicum
latviešu: Arābu pavasaris
Lëtzebuergesch: Arabescht Fréijoer
lietuvių: Arabų pavasaris
magyar: Arab tavasz
македонски: Арапска пролет
مازِرونی: عربی بهار
Bahasa Melayu: Kebangkitan dunia Arab
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အာရပ်နွေဦး
Nederlands: Arabische Lente
日本語: アラブの春
occitan: Prima Aràbia
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Arab bahori
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਅਰਬ ਬਹਾਰ
پنجابی: عرب بسنت
português: Primavera Árabe
Scots: Arab Ware
Simple English: Arab Spring
slovenčina: Arabská jar
српски / srpski: Арапско пролеће
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Arapsko proljeće
Taqbaylit: Tafsut taɛrabt
Türkçe: Arap Baharı
українська: Арабська весна
اردو: عرب بہار
Tiếng Việt: Mùa xuân Ả Rập