Aphid

Aphids
Temporal range: Permian –present
Aphid on leaf05.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Arthropoda
Class:Insecta
Order:Hemiptera
Suborder:Sternorrhyncha
Infraorder:Aphidomorpha
Superfamily:Aphidoidea
Geoffroy, 1762
Families
  • Aphididae Latreille, 1802
  • Bajsaphididae Homan, Zyla & Wegierek, 2015
  • Canadaphididae Richards, 1966
  • Cretamyzidae Heie, 1992
  • Drepanochaitophoridae Zhang & Hong, 1999
  • Oviparosiphidae Shaposhnikov, 1979
  • Parvaverrucosidae Poinar & Brown, 2006
  • Sinaphididae Zhang, Zhang, Hou & Ma, 1989
  • incertae cedis
    • Palaeoforda tajmyrensis Kononova, 1977
    • Penaphis Lin, 1980
    • Plioaphis subhercynica Heie, 1968
    • Sbenaphis Scudder, 1890
    • Sunaphis Hong & Wang, 1990
    • Xilutiancallis Wang, 1991
    • Yueaphis Wang, 1993

Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea. Common names include greenfly and blackfly,[a] although individuals within a species can vary widely in colour. The group includes the fluffy white woolly aphids. A typical life cycle involves flightless females giving living birth to female nymphs without the involvement of males. Maturing rapidly, females breed profusely so that the number of these insects multiplies quickly. Winged females may develop later in the season, allowing the insects to colonise new plants. In temperate regions, a phase of sexual reproduction occurs in the autumn, with the insects often overwintering as eggs.

The life cycle of some species involves an alternation between two species of host plants, for example between an annual crop and a woody plant. Some species feed on only one type of plant, while others are generalists, colonising many plant groups. About 5,000 species of aphid have been described, all included in the family Aphididae. Around 400 of these are found on food and fibre crops, and many are serious pests of agriculture and forestry, as well as an annoyance for gardeners. So-called dairying ants have a mutualistic relationship with aphids, tending them for their honeydew, and protecting them from predators.

Aphids are among the most destructive insect pests on cultivated plants in temperate regions. In addition to weakening the plant by sucking sap, they act as vectors for plant viruses and disfigure ornamental plants with deposits of honeydew and the subsequent growth of sooty moulds. Because of their ability to rapidly increase in numbers by asexual reproduction, they are a highly successful group of organisms from an ecological standpoint.[1]

Control of aphids is not easy. Insecticides do not always produce reliable results, given resistance to several classes of insecticide and the fact that aphids often feed on the undersides of leaves. On a garden scale, water jets and soap sprays are quite effective. Natural enemies include predatory ladybugs, hoverfly larvae, parasitic wasps, aphid midge larvae, crab spiders, lacewing larvae, and entomopathogenic fungi. An integrated pest management strategy using biological pest control can work, but is difficult to achieve except in enclosed environments such as glasshouses.

Distribution

Aphids are distributed worldwide, but are most common in temperate zones. In contrast to many taxa, aphid species diversity is much lower in the tropics than in the temperate zones.[2] They can migrate great distances, mainly through passive dispersal by winds. Winged aphids may also rise up in the day as high as 600 m where they are transported by strong winds.[3][4] For example, the currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, is believed to have spread from New Zealand to Tasmania around 2004 through easterly winds.[5] Aphids have also been spread by human transportation of infested plant materials, making some species nearly cosmopolitan in their distribution.[6]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Plantluis
العربية: من (حشرة)
asturianu: Aphidoidea
বাংলা: এফিড
башҡортса: Кеблә
беларуская: Тлі
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Тлі
български: Листни въшки
català: Afidoïdeus
čeština: Mšice
dansk: Bladlus
Deutsch: Blattläuse
Diné bizaad: Nahachagii biyázhí
Ελληνικά: Αφίδα
español: Aphidoidea
Esperanto: Afido
فارسی: شته
français: Aphidoidea
Frysk: Blêdluzen
Gaeilge: Aifid
galego: Áfidos
한국어: 진딧물
हिन्दी: ऐफिड
Ido: Afidio
Bahasa Indonesia: Kutu daun
italiano: Aphidoidea
ქართული: ბუგრები
қазақша: Біте
Kiswahili: Kidukari
latviešu: Laputis
lietuvių: Amariniai
magyar: Levéltetvek
Bahasa Melayu: Afid
Nederlands: Bladluizen
नेपाली: लाही किरा
日本語: アブラムシ
norsk: Bladlus
norsk nynorsk: Bladlus
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Oʻsimlik bitlari
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਐਫਿਡ
Plattdüütsch: Blattlüse
polski: Mszyce
português: Afídio
română: Afidă
Runa Simi: Yura usa
русский: Тли
Simple English: Aphid
slovenčina: Vošky (Aphidinea)
slovenščina: Listne uši
suomi: Kirvat
svenska: Bladlöss
татарча/tatarça: Гөбләләр
Türkçe: Yaprak biti
українська: Попелиці
Tiếng Việt: Aphidoidea
walon: Emîleures
žemaitėška: Sausīs
中文: 蚜虫