Anthracite

Anthracite coal
Black coal, hard coal, stone coal, blind coal, Kilkenny coal, crow coal, craw coal, black diamond
Metamorphic rock
Anthracite coal
Anthracite coal
Composition
Carbon, 92–98%

Anthracite, often referred to as hard coal, is a hard, compact variety of coal that has a submetallic luster. It has the highest carbon content, the fewest impurities, and the highest energy density of all types of coal and is the highest ranking of coals.

Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism), in which the carbon content is between 92% and 98%.[1][2] The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point of ignition.[3] Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short, blue, and smokeless flame.

Anthracite is categorized into standard grade, which is used mainly in power generation, and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG), the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector. Anthracite accounts for about 1% of global coal reserves,[4] and is mined in only a few countries around the world. China accounts for the majority of global production; other producers are Russia, Ukraine, North Korea, South Africa, Vietnam, the UK, Australia, Canada and the US. Total production in 2010 was 670 million tons.[5]

Names

A culm (anthracite) pile in Trevorton, Pennsylvania.

Anthracite derives from the Greek anthrakítēs (ἀνθρακίτης), literally "coal-like".[6] Other terms which refer to anthracite are black coal, hard coal, stone coal,[7][8] dark coal, coffee coal, blind coal (in Scotland),[3] Kilkenny coal (in Ireland),[7] crow coal or craw coal, and black diamond. "Blue Coal" is the term for a once-popular and trademarked brand of anthracite, mined by the Glen Alden Coal Company in Pennsylvania, and sprayed with a blue dye at the mine before shipping to its northeastern U.S. markets to distinguish it from its competitors.

Culm has different meanings in British and American English. In British English, "culm" is the imperfect anthracite of north Devon and Cornwall, which was used as a pigment. The term is also used to refer to some Carboniferous rock strata found in both Britain and in the Rhenish hill countries (the Culm Measures).[3] Lastly, it may refer to coal exported from Britain during the 19th century.[7] In American English, "culm" refers to the waste or slack from anthracite mining,[3] mostly dust and small pieces not suitable for use in home furnaces.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Antrasiet
العربية: فحم صلب
azərbaycanca: Antrasit
беларуская: Антрацыт
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Антрацыт
български: Антрацит
català: Antracita
čeština: Antracit
Cymraeg: Glo carreg
dansk: Antracit
eesti: Antratsiit
español: Antracita
euskara: Antrazita
فارسی: آنتراسیت
français: Anthracite
Gaeilge: Antraicít
galego: Antracita
한국어: 무연탄
հայերեն: Անտրացիտ
हिन्दी: ऐंथ्रासाइट
hrvatski: Antracit
Bahasa Indonesia: Antrasit
íslenska: Steinkol
қазақша: Антрацит
Кыргызча: Антрацит
latviešu: Antracīts
Lëtzebuergesch: Anthrazit
lietuvių: Antracitas
magyar: Antracit
日本語: 無煙炭
norsk: Antrasitt
norsk nynorsk: Antrasitt
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Antratsit
português: Antracite
română: Antracit
русский: Антрацит
Scots: Anthracite
Simple English: Anthracite
slovenčina: Antracit
slovenščina: Antracit
српски / srpski: Антрацит
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Antracit
svenska: Antracit
తెలుగు: అంత్రాసైట్
тоҷикӣ: Антрасит
Türkçe: Antrasit
українська: Антрацит
Tiếng Việt: Anthracit
中文: 无烟煤