Antarctic

The Antarctic region with the Antarctic Convergence and the 60th parallel south
The Antarctic (without its periphery, a composite satellite image)
Anthony de la Roché's and other early voyages in the Southern Ocean
The Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, the geographic South Pole is signposted in the background
Moubray Bay and Mount Herschel, Eastern Antarctica
Grytviken Museum in South Georgia

The Antarctic (US English k/, UK English k/ or k/ and k/ or k/) [Note 1] is a polar region, specifically the region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole. The Antarctic comprises in the strict sense the continent of Antarctica and the island territories located on the Antarctic Plate. In a broader sense the Antarctic region include the ice shelves, waters, and island territories in the Southern Ocean situated south of the Antarctic Convergence, a zone approximately 32 to 48 km (20 to 30 mi) wide varying in latitude seasonally. [4] The region covers some 20% of the Southern Hemisphere, of which 5.5% (14 million km2) is the surface area of the Antarctic continent itself. All of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude are administered under the Antarctic Treaty System. In a biogeographic sense, the Antarctic ecozone is one of eight ecozones of the Earth's land surface.

Geography

The maritime part of the region constitutes the area of application of the international Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), where for technical reasons the Convention uses an approximation of the Convergence line by means of a line joining specified points along parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude. [5] The implementation of the Convention is managed through an international Commission headquartered in Hobart, Australia, by an efficient system of annual fishing quotas, licenses and international inspectors on the fishing vessels, as well as satellite surveillance.

Most of the Antarctic region is situated south of 60°S latitude parallel, and is governed in accordance with the international legal regime of the Antarctic Treaty System. [6] The Treaty area covers the continent itself and its immediately adjacent islands, as well as the archipelagos of the South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, Peter I Island, Scott Island and Balleny Islands.

The islands situated between 60°S latitude parallel to the south and the Antarctic Convergence to the north, and their respective 200-nautical-mile (370 km) exclusive economic zones fall under the national jurisdiction of the countries that possess them: South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (United Kingdom; also an EU Overseas territory), Bouvet Island (Norway), and Heard and McDonald Islands (Australia).

Kerguelen Islands (France; also an EU Overseas territory) are situated in the Antarctic Convergence area, while the Falkland Islands, Isla de los Estados, Hornos Island with Cape Horn, Diego Ramírez Islands, Campbell Island, Macquarie Island, Amsterdam and Saint Paul Islands, Crozet Islands, Prince Edward Islands, and Gough Island and Tristan da Cunha group remain north of the Convergence and thus outside the Antarctic region.

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Antarktis
azərbaycanca: Antarktika
Bân-lâm-gú: Lâm-ke̍k-chiu
башҡортса: Антарктика
беларуская: Антарктыка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Антарктыка
български: Антарктика
Boarisch: Antarktis
буряад: Антарктика
Чӑвашла: Антарктика
Deutsch: Antarktis
dolnoserbski: Antarktis
eesti: Antarktika
Հայերեն: Անտարկտիկա
hornjoserbsce: Antarktis
Ilokano: Antartiko
kalaallisut: Antarktis
ქართული: ანტარქტიკა
қазақша: Антарктика
Кыргызча: Антарктика
latviešu: Antarktika
magyar: Antarktisz
Bahasa Melayu: Antartik
日本語: 南極
Nordfriisk: Antarktis
norsk: Antarktis
norsk nynorsk: Antarktika
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Antarktika (qutb)
polski: Antarktyka
Qaraqalpaqsha: Antarktida
română: Antarctica
русский: Антарктика
Scots: Antarctic
shqip: Antarktis
Simple English: Antarctic
suomi: Antarktis
Türkçe: Antarktik
Türkmençe: Antarktida
українська: Антарктика
Tiếng Việt: Vùng Nam Cực
Võro: Antarktiga
Yorùbá: Antárktìkì
粵語: 南極地區