Anne Frank

Anne Frank
Anne Frank in 1940
Anne Frank in 1940
BornAnnelies[1] or Anneliese[2] Marie Frank
(1929-06-12)12 June 1929
Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
DiedFebruary or March 1945 (aged 15)
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, Eastern Hanover, Germany
Resting placeBergen-Belsen concentration camp, Lower Saxony, Germany
OccupationDiarist
LanguageDutch
Citizenship
Relatives

Signature

Annelies Marie "Anne" Frank (German: [anəˈliːs maˈʁiː ˈfʁaŋk], Dutch: [ɑnəˈlis maːˈri ˈfrɑŋk]); 12 June 1929 – February or March 1945)[3] was a German-born Dutch-Jewish diarist. One of the most discussed Jewish victims of the Holocaust, she gained fame posthumously with the publication of The Diary of a Young Girl (originally Het Achterhuis in Dutch; English: The Secret Annex), in which she documents her life in hiding from 1942 to 1944, during the German occupation of the Netherlands in World War II. It is one of the world's best known books and has been the basis for several plays and films.

Born in Frankfurt, Germany, she lived most of her life in or near Amsterdam, Netherlands, having moved there with her family at the age of four and a half when the Nazis gained control over Germany. Born a German national, she lost her citizenship in 1941 and thus became stateless. By May 1940, the Franks were trapped in Amsterdam by the German occupation of the Netherlands. As persecutions of the Jewish population increased in July 1942, the Franks went into hiding in some concealed rooms behind a bookcase in the building where Anne's father, Otto Frank, worked. From then until the family's arrest by the Gestapo in August 1944, she kept a diary she had received as a birthday present, and wrote in it regularly. Following their arrest, the Franks were transported to concentration camps. In October or November 1944, Anne and her sister, Margot, were transferred from Auschwitz to Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where they died (probably of typhus) a few months later. They were originally estimated by the Red Cross to have died in March, with Dutch authorities setting 31 March as their official date of death, but research by the Anne Frank House in 2015 suggests it is more likely that they died in February.[3]

Otto, the only survivor of the Franks, returned to Amsterdam after the war to find that her diary had been saved by his secretary, Miep Gies, and his efforts led to its publication in 1947. It was translated from its original Dutch version and first published in English in 1952 as The Diary of a Young Girl, and has since been translated into over 60 languages.

Early life

Frank was born Annelies[1] or Anneliese[2] Marie Frank on 12 June 1929 at the Maingau Red Cross Clinic[4] in Frankfurt, Germany, to Edith (née Holländer) and Otto Heinrich Frank. She had an older sister, Margot.[5] The Franks were liberal Jews, and did not observe all of the customs and traditions of Judaism.[6] They lived in an assimilated community of Jewish and non-Jewish citizens of various religions. Edith was the more devout parent, while Otto was interested in scholarly pursuits and had an extensive library; both parents encouraged the children to read.[7] At the time of Anne's birth the family lived in a house at Marbachweg 307 in Frankfurt-Dornbusch, where they rented two floors. In 1931 the family moved to Ganghoferstrasse 24 in a fashionable liberal area of Dornbusch called the Dichterviertel (Poets' Quarter). Both houses still exist.[8]

Anne Frank's birthplace, the Maingau Red Cross Clinic
A four-story, brick apartment block showing the building's facade, with several windows and an internal staircase leading into the block.
The apartment block on the Merwedeplein where the Frank family lived from 1934 until 1942

In 1933, after Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party won the federal election, Edith Frank and the children went to stay with Edith's mother Rosa in Aachen. Otto Frank remained in Frankfurt, but after receiving an offer to start a company in Amsterdam, he moved there to organize the business and to arrange accommodations for his family.[9] He began working at the Opekta Works, a company that sold the fruit extract pectin, and found an apartment on the Merwedeplein (Merwede Square) in the Rivierenbuurt neighbourhood of Amsterdam. By February 1934, Edith and the children had joined him in Amsterdam. The Franks were among 300,000 Jews who fled Germany between 1933 and 1939.[10]

After moving to Amsterdam, Anne and Margot Frank were enrolled in school—Margot in public school and Anne in a Montessori school. Margot demonstrated ability in arithmetic, and Anne showed aptitude for reading and writing. Anne's friend, Hanneli Goslar, later recalled that from early childhood, Frank frequently wrote, although she shielded her work with her hands and refused to discuss the content of her writing.

In 1938, Otto Frank started a second company, Pectacon, which was a wholesaler of herbs, pickling salts, and mixed spices, used in the production of sausages.[11][12] Hermann van Pels was employed by Pectacon as an advisor about spices. A Jewish butcher, he had fled Osnabrück with his family.[12] In 1939, Edith Frank's mother came to live with the Franks, and remained with them until her death in January 1942.[13]

In May 1940, Germany invaded the Netherlands, and the occupation government began to persecute Jews by the implementation of restrictive and discriminatory laws; mandatory registration and segregation soon followed.[13] Otto Frank tried to arrange for the family to emigrate to the United States – the only destination that seemed to him to be viable[14] – but Frank's application for a visa was never processed, due to circumstances such as the closing of the U.S. consulate in Rotterdam and the loss of all the paperwork there, including the visa application.[15] Even if it had been processed, the U.S. government at the time was concerned that people with close relatives still in Germany could be blackmailed into becoming Nazi spies.[14]

The Frank sisters were excelling in their studies and had many friends, but with the introduction of a decree that Jews could attend only Jewish schools, they were enrolled at the Jewish Lyceum. Anne became a friend of Jacqueline van Maarsen in the Lyceum.[13] In April 1941, Otto took action to prevent Pectacon from being confiscated as a Jewish-owned business. He transferred his shares in Pectacon to Johannes Kleiman and resigned as director. The company was liquidated and all assets transferred to Gies and Company, headed by Jan Gies. In December, Otto followed a similar process to save Opekta. The businesses continued with little obvious change and their survival allowed Otto to earn a minimal income, but sufficient to provide for his family.[16]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Anne Frank
አማርኛ: አና ፍራንክ
العربية: آن فرانك
aragonés: Anne Frank
asturianu: Ana Frank
azərbaycanca: Anna Frank
تۆرکجه: آنه فرانک
বাংলা: আন ফ্রাংক
Bân-lâm-gú: Anne Frank
беларуская: Ганна Франк
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ганна Франк
Bikol Central: Anne Frank
български: Ане Франк
bosanski: Anne Frank
brezhoneg: Anne Frank
català: Anne Frank
čeština: Anne Franková
Cymraeg: Anne Frank
dansk: Anne Frank
Deutsch: Anne Frank
eesti: Anne Frank
Ελληνικά: Άννα Φρανκ
español: Ana Frank
Esperanto: Anne Frank
euskara: Anne Frank
فارسی: آنه فرانک
føroyskt: Anne Frank
français: Anne Frank
Frysk: Anne Frank
Gaeilge: Anne Frank
Gàidhlig: Anne Frank
galego: Anne Frank
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Anne Frank
한국어: 안네 프랑크
հայերեն: Աննա Ֆրանկ
Արեւմտահայերէն: Անն Ֆրանք
हिन्दी: ऐनी फ्रैंक
hrvatski: Anne Frank
Bahasa Indonesia: Anne Frank
interlingua: Anne Frank
Interlingue: Anne Frank
íslenska: Anna Frank
italiano: Anna Frank
עברית: אנה פרנק
ქართული: ანა ფრანკი
қазақша: Анна Франк
Kiswahili: Anne Frank
kurdî: Anne Frank
Кыргызча: Анна Франк
Latina: Anna Frank
latviešu: Anna Franka
Lëtzebuergesch: Anne Frank
lietuvių: Ana Frank
Limburgs: Anne Frank
lumbaart: Anna Frank
magyar: Anne Frank
македонски: Ана Франк
Malagasy: Anne Frank
Malti: Anna Frank
Bahasa Melayu: Anne Frank
монгол: Аннэ Франк
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အာနယ်ဖရန့်ခ်
Nederlands: Anne Frank
norsk: Anne Frank
norsk nynorsk: Anne Frank
occitan: Anne Frank
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਆਨਾ ਫ਼ਰਾਂਕ
پنجابی: اینے فرانک
Papiamentu: Anne Frank
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អាន់ ហ្វ្រែង
polski: Anne Frank
português: Anne Frank
română: Anne Frank
rumantsch: Anne Frank
русский: Франк, Анна
Scots: Anne Frank
shqip: Anne Frank
Simple English: Anne Frank
slovenčina: Anna Franková
slovenščina: Ana Frank
Soomaaliga: Anne Frank
српски / srpski: Ана Франк
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Anne Frank
suomi: Anne Frank
svenska: Anne Frank
Türkçe: Anne Frank
українська: Анна Франк
vèneto: Ana Frank
Tiếng Việt: Anne Frank
walon: Anne Frank
Winaray: Anne Frank
ייִדיש: אנא פראנק