Anime

Anime (US: /, UK: /)[1] (Japanese: アニメ, Hepburn: anime, [aɲime] (About this soundlisten), plural: anime)[a] is hand-drawn and computer animation originating from or associated with Japan.

The word anime is the Japanese term for animation, which means all forms of animated media.[2] Outside Japan, anime refers specifically to animation from Japan or as a Japanese-disseminated animation style often characterized by colorful graphics, vibrant characters and fantastical themes.[3][4] The culturally abstract approach to the word's meaning may open up the possibility of anime produced in countries other than Japan.[5][6][7] For simplicity, many Westerners strictly view anime as a Japanese animation product.[4] Some scholars suggest defining anime as specifically or quintessentially Japanese may be related to a new form of Orientalism.[8]

The earliest commercial Japanese animation dates to 1917, and Japanese anime production has since continued to increase steadily. The characteristic anime art style emerged in the 1960s with the works of Osamu Tezuka and spread internationally in the late twentieth century, developing a large domestic and international audience. Anime is distributed theatrically, by way of television broadcasts, directly to home media, and over the Internet. It is classified into numerous genres targeting diverse broad and niche audiences.

Anime is a diverse art form with distinctive production methods and techniques that have been adapted over time in response to emergent technologies. It combines graphic art, characterization, cinematography, and other forms of imaginative and individualistic techniques.[9] The production of anime focuses less on the animation of movement and more on the realism of settings as well as the use of camera effects, including panning, zooming, and angle shots. Being hand-drawn, anime is separated from reality by a crucial gap of fiction that provides an ideal path for escapism that audiences can immerse themselves into with relative ease.[9] Diverse art styles are used and character proportions and features can be quite varied, including characteristically large emotive or realistically sized eyes.

The anime industry consists of over 430 production studios, including major names like Studio Ghibli, Gainax, and Toei Animation. Despite comprising only a fraction of Japan's domestic film market, anime makes up a majority of Japanese DVD sales. It has also seen international success after the rise of English-dubbed programming. This rise in international popularity has resulted in non-Japanese productions using the anime art style. Whether these works are anime-influenced animation or proper anime is a subject for debate amongst fans.[10] Japanese anime accounts for 60% of the world's animated television shows, as of 2016.[11]

Etymology

Anime is an art form, specifically animation, that includes all genres found in cinema, but it can be mistakenly classified as a genre.[12] In Japanese, the term anime is used as a blanket term to refer to all forms of animation from around the world.[2][13] In English, anime (/) is more restrictively used to denote a "Japanese-style animated film or television entertainment" or as "a style of animation created in Japan".[3][14]

The etymology of the word anime is disputed. The English term "animation" is written in Japanese katakana as アニメーション (animēshon, Japanese pronunciation: [animeːɕoɴ])[4] and is アニメ (anime) in its shortened form.[4] The pronunciation of anime in Japanese differs from pronunciations in other languages such as Standard English (pronunciation: /), which has different vowels and stress with regards to Japanese, where each mora carries equal stress. As with a few other Japanese words such as saké, Pokémon, and Kobo Abé, English-language texts sometimes spell anime as animé (as in French), with an acute accent over the final e, to cue the reader to pronounce the letter, not to leave it silent as Standard English orthography may suggest.

Some sources claim that anime derives from the French term for animation dessin animé,[15][16] but others believe this to be a myth derived from the French popularity of the medium in the late 1970s and 1980s.[4] In English, anime—when used as a common noun—normally functions as a mass noun. (For example: "Do you watch anime?" or "How much anime have you collected?")[17] Prior to the widespread use of anime, the term Japanimation was prevalent throughout the 1970s and 1980s. In the mid-1980s, the term anime began to supplant Japanimation.[15][18] In general, the latter term now only appears in period works where it is used to distinguish and identify Japanese animation.[19]

The word anime has also been criticised, e.g. in 1987, when Hayao Miyazaki stated that he despised the truncated word anime because to him it represented the desolation of the Japanese animation industry. He equated the desolation with animators lacking motivation and with mass-produced, overly expressionistic products relying upon a fixed iconography of facial expressions and protracted and exaggerated action scenes but lacking depth and sophistication in that they do not attempt to convey emotion or thought.[20]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Anime
Alemannisch: Anime
አማርኛ: አኒሜ
العربية: أنمي
aragonés: Anime
অসমীয়া: এনিমে
asturianu: Anime
azərbaycanca: Anime
বাংলা: অ্যানিমে
Banjar: Anime
Bân-lâm-gú: Anime
башҡортса: Аниме
беларуская: Анімэ
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Анімэ
български: Аниме
Boarisch: Anime
bosanski: Anime
brezhoneg: Anime
català: Anime
Чӑвашла: Аниме
čeština: Anime
Cymraeg: Anime
dansk: Anime
Deutsch: Anime
eesti: Anime
Ελληνικά: Anime
español: Anime
Esperanto: Animeo
euskara: Anime
فارسی: انیمه
français: Anime
Gaeilge: Anime
galego: Anime
հայերեն: Անիմե
हिन्दी: ऐनिमे
hrvatski: Anime
Ilokano: Anime
Bahasa Indonesia: Anime
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐋᐃᓃᒫᖅ
íslenska: Anime
italiano: Anime
Jawa: Anime
ქართული: ანიმე
қазақша: Аниме
Kiswahili: Anime
Кыргызча: Аниме
Latina: Anime
latviešu: Anime
Lëtzebuergesch: Anime
lietuvių: Anime
Limburgs: Anime
Lingua Franca Nova: Anime
magyar: Anime
македонски: Аниме
മലയാളം: അനിമെ
मराठी: अॅनिमे
Bahasa Melayu: Anime
монгол: Анимэ
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အန်နီမဲ
Nāhuatl: Anime
Nederlands: Anime
नेपाली: एनिमे
日本語: アニメ
Napulitano: Anime
norsk: Anime
norsk nynorsk: Anime
occitan: Anime
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଆନିମେ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Anime
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਐਨੀਮੇ
پنجابی: انائم
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អានីមេ
Piemontèis: Anime
polski: Anime
português: Anime
română: Anime
Runa Simi: Anime
русский: Аниме
саха тыла: Аниме
sardu: Anime
Scots: Anime
shqip: Anime
Simple English: Anime
slovenčina: Anime
slovenščina: Anime
ślůnski: Anime
کوردی: ئەنیمێ
српски / srpski: Аниме
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Anime
Sunda: Animé
suomi: Anime
svenska: Anime
Tagalog: Anime
தமிழ்: அனிமே
татарча/tatarça: Аниме
тоҷикӣ: Аниме
Türkçe: Anime
Türkmençe: Anime
удмурт: Аниме
українська: Аніме
اردو: اینیمے
Tiếng Việt: Anime
文言: 日本動畫
Winaray: Anime
吴语: 日本动画
ייִדיש: אנימע
粵語: 日本動畫
žemaitėška: Anime
中文: 日本动画