In the years leading up to the Ukrainian independence in 1991 Parubiy was an independence activist and was arrested for organizing an unsanctioned rally in 1989. In 1991 he founded the Social-National Party of Ukraine together with Oleh Tyahnybok; the party combined radical nationalism and some neo-Nazi features (by its name and the "Wolfsangel"-like sign). In 1998–2004 Parubiy led the paramilitary organization of SNPU, the Patriot of Ukraine. Parubiy left these organizations in 2004.
Parubiy co-led the Orange Revolution in 2004. In the 2007 parliamentary elections he was voted into the Ukrainian parliament on an Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc ticket. He then became a member of the deputy group that would later become For Ukraine!. Parubiy stayed with Our Ukraine and became a member of its political council.
In February 2010 Parubiy asked the European Parliament to reconsider its negative reaction to former Ukrainian President Victor Yushchenko's decision to award Stepan Bandera, the leader of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, the title of Hero of Ukraine.
In early February 2012 Parubiy left Our Ukraine because their "views diverged". In 2012 he was re-elected into parliament on the party list of "Fatherland".
From December 2013 to February 2014 Parubiy was a commandant of Euromaidan. He was coordinator of the volunteer security corps for the mainstream protesters. He was then appointed Secretary of the National Security and Defence Council of Ukraine. This appointment was approved by (then) new Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko on June 16, 2014.
As Secretary of the National Security and Defense Council, Parubiy oversawpro-Russian separatists in eastern Ukraine.
the "anti–terrorist" operation against
Parubiy resigned as Secretary of the National Security and Defense Council on August 7, 2014. He declined to say why, stating "I believe it is unacceptable to comment on my resignation in a time of war", and he would "continue to assist the front, primarily volunteer battalions". President Poroshenko signed a decree confirming Parubiy's dismissal the same day. RT reported that local media were stating that Parubiy resigned after he was ordered to declare another ceasefire in the southeast of Ukraine, but refused to do so.
In September 2014 Parubiy became a founding member of his new party People's Front. At the Ukrainian elections of October 2014 he was re-elected as People's Deputy on the party list "People's Front". On 4 December he was elected as Deputy Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada.
After the resignation of Volodymyr Groysman, on 14 April 2016 he was elected as Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada.
During Parubiy's parliamentary visits to France and the United Kingdom in June 2018, his "neo-Nazi" nationalist views were condemned by leftists such as Jean-Luc Mélenchon, Alexis Corbière, the French Communist Party and the Labour Party member of the Scottish Parliament, Neil Findlay. Findlay called for an inquiry into Parubiy's visit to the Scottish Parliament.