Andrew III of Hungary

Andrew III
Andrew III (Chronica Hungarorum).jpg
Andrew depicted in the Chronica Hungarorum in 1488
King of Hungary and Croatia
Coronation23 July 1290
PredecessorLadislaus IV
Bornc. 1265
Died14 January 1301 (aged 35–36)
Greyfriars' Church, Buda
SpouseFenenna of Kuyavia
Agnes of Austria
IssueElizabeth of Töss
FatherStephen the Posthumous
MotherTomasina Morosini
ReligionRoman Catholic

Andrew III the Venetian (Hungarian: III. Velencei András, Croatian: Andrija III. Mlečanin, Slovak: Ondrej III.; c. 1265 – 14 January 1301) was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1290 and 1301. His father, Stephen the Posthumous, was the posthumous son of Andrew II of Hungary although Stephen's brothers considered him a bastard. Andrew grew up in Venice, and first arrived in Hungary upon the invitation of a rebellious baron, Ivan Kőszegi, in 1278. Kőszegi tried to play Andrew off against Ladislaus IV of Hungary, but the conspiracy collapsed and Andrew returned to Venice.

Being the last male member of the House of Árpád, Andrew was elected king after the death of King Ladislaus IV in 1290. He was the first Hungarian monarch to issue a coronation diploma confirming the privileges of the noblemen and the clergy. At least three pretenders—Albert of Austria, Mary of Hungary, and an adventurer—challenged his claim to the throne. Andrew expelled the adventurer from Hungary and forced Albert of Austria to conclude a peace within a year, but Mary of Hungary and her descendants did not renounce their claim. The Hungarian bishops and Andrew's maternal family from Venice were his principal supporters, but the leading Croatian and Slavonian lords were opposed to his rule.

Hungary was in a state of constant anarchy during Andrew's reign. The Kőszegis, the Csáks, and other powerful families autonomously governed their domains, rising up nearly every year in open rebellion against Andrew. With Andrew's death, the House of Árpád became extinct. A civil war ensued which lasted for more than two decades and ended with the victory of Mary of Hungary's grandson, Charles Robert.

Childhood (c. 1265–1278)

Andrew was the son of Stephen the Posthumous, the self-styled Duke of Slavonia, and his second wife, Tomasina Morosini.[1][2] Andrew's father was born to Beatrice D'Este, the third wife of Andrew II of Hungary, after the king's death.[3] However, Andrew II's two elder sons, Béla IV of Hungary and Coloman of Halych, accused Beatrice D'Este of adultery and refused to acknowledge Stephen the Posthumous as their legitimate brother.[4] Andrew's mother, Tomasina Morosini, was the daughter of wealthy Venetian patrician Michele Morosini.[5]

The exact date of Andrew's birth is unknown.[6] According to historians Tibor Almási, Gyula Kristó, and Attila Zsoldos, he was born in about 1265.[6][7][8] Stephen the Posthumous nominated his wife's two kinsmen, including her brother Albertino Morosini, as Andrew's guardians before his death in 1272.[9]

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