Amun

Amun
Amun.svg
Typical depiction of Amun during the New Kingdom, with two plumes on his head, the ankh symbol and the was sceptre.
Name in hieroglyphs
imn
n
C12
Major cult centerThebes
Symboltwo vertical plumes, the ram-headed Sphinx (Criosphinx)
Consort
OffspringKhonsu
Greek equivalentZeus

Amun (also Amon, Ammon, Amen; Greek Ἄμμων Ámmōn, Ἅμμων Hámmōn)[1] is a major ancient Egyptian deity who appears as a member of the Hermopolitan Ogdoad. Amun was attested from the Old Kingdom together with his wife Amaunet. With the 11th dynasty (c. 21st century BC), Amun rose to the position of patron deity of Thebes by replacing Montu.[2]

After the rebellion of Thebes against the Hyksos and with the rule of Ahmose I (16th century BC), Amun acquired national importance, expressed in his fusion with the Sun god, Ra, as Amun-Ra or Amun-Re.

Amun-Ra retained chief importance in the Egyptian pantheon throughout the New Kingdom (with the exception of the "Atenist heresy" under Akhenaten).Amun-Ra in this period (16th to 11th centuries BC) held the position of transcendental, self-created[3] creator deity "par excellence"; he was the champion of the poor or troubled and central to personal piety.[4] His position as King of Gods developed to the point of virtual monotheism where other gods became manifestations of him. With Osiris, Amun-Ra is the most widely recorded of the Egyptian gods.[4]

As the chief deity of the Egyptian Empire, Amun-Ra also came to be worshipped outside Egypt, according to the testimony of ancient Greek historiographers in Libya and Nubia. As Zeus Ammon, he came to be identified with Zeus in Greece.

Early history

Statue of Ramesses II with Amun and Mut at the Museo Egizio of Turin, Italy.

Amun and Amaunet are mentioned in the Old Egyptian Pyramid Texts.[5] The name Amun (written jmn) meant something like "the hidden one" or "invisible".[6]

Amun rose to the position of tutelary deity of Thebes after the end of the First Intermediate Period, under the 11th dynasty. As the patron of Thebes, his spouse was Mut. In Thebes, Amun as father, Mut as mother and the Moon god Khonsu formed a divine family or "Theban Triad".

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Amoen
Alemannisch: Amun
አማርኛ: አሙን
العربية: آمون
asturianu: Amón
azərbaycanca: Amon
বাংলা: আমুন
беларуская: Амон
български: Амон
བོད་ཡིག: ཨ་མོན།
bosanski: Amon
brezhoneg: Amon
català: Amon
Чӑвашла: Амон
čeština: Amon
dansk: Amon
Deutsch: Amun
eesti: Amon
Ελληνικά: Άμων
español: Amón
euskara: Amon
فارسی: آمون
français: Amon
galego: Amón
한국어: 아문
հայերեն: Ամոն
हिन्दी: अमुन
hrvatski: Amon
Bahasa Indonesia: Amun
íslenska: Amon
italiano: Amon
עברית: אמון (אל)
ქართული: ამონი
Latina: Ammon
latviešu: Amons
lietuvių: Amonas
македонски: Амон
മലയാളം: അമുൻ
मराठी: अमुन रा
მარგალური: ამონი
مصرى: امون
Bahasa Melayu: Amun
Nederlands: Amon (mythologie)
日本語: アメン
norsk: Amon
norsk nynorsk: Amon
occitan: Imen
português: Ámon
română: Amon
русский: Амон
Scots: Amun
Simple English: Amun
سنڌي: آمون
slovenčina: Amon
slovenščina: Amon
کوردی: ئاموون
српски / srpski: Amon
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Amon
suomi: Amon
svenska: Amon
тоҷикӣ: Омун
Türkçe: Amon
українська: Амон
اردو: آمون
Tiếng Việt: Amun
Zazaki: Amon
中文: 阿蒙