Amsterdam - Boat - 0635.jpg
Concertgebouw 04.jpg
Amsterdam - Rijksmuseum - panoramio - Nikolai Karaneschev.jpg
From top down, left to right: Grachtengordel, canal in the Centrum borough, Royal Concertgebouw and Rijksmuseum
Flag of Amsterdam
Coat of arms of Amsterdam
Coat of arms
Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Steadfast, Compassionate)
Location of Amsterdam in the province of North Holland
Location of Amsterdam in the province of North Holland
Amsterdam is located in Netherlands
Location of Amsterdam in the Netherlands
Amsterdam is located in Europe
Amsterdam (Europe)
Coordinates: 52°22′N 4°54′E / 52°22′N 4°54′E / 52.367; 4.900North Holland
City HallStopera
 • BodyMunicipal council
 • MayorFemke Halsema
 • Municipality219.32 km2 (84.68 sq mi)
 • Land165.76 km2 (64.00 sq mi)
 • Water53.56 km2 (20.68 sq mi)
 • Randstad3,043 km2 (1,175 sq mi)
Elevation−2 m (−7 ft)
(municipality and urban area, 2018; metro region, 2014; Randstad, 2016)[5][3][6][7][8][9]
 • Municipality854,047
 • Density5,135/km2 (13,300/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Metro region
 • Randstad
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Area code020

Amsterdam (m/, UK also m/;[10][11] Dutch: [ɑmstərˈdɑm] (About this soundlisten)) is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands,[12] although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague.[13] Amsterdam has a population of 854,047 within the city proper, 1,357,675 in the urban area[5] and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area.[9] The city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, which is Haarlem. The Amsterdam metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, which has a population of approximately 8.1 million.[14][15]

Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme,[16] indicative of the city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel. Originating as a small fishing village in the late 12th century, Amsterdam became one of the most important ports in the world during the Dutch Golden Age (17th century), as a result of its innovative developments in trade. During that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and trade.[17] In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, and many new neighbourhoods and suburbs were planned and built. The 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Since the annexation of the municipality of Sloten in 1921 by the municipality of Amsterdam, the oldest historic part of the city lies in Sloten, dating to the 9th century.

As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered an alpha- world city by the Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) study group. The city is also the cultural capital of the Netherlands.[18] Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, including Philips, AkzoNobel, TomTom and ING.[19] Also, many of the world's largest companies are based in Amsterdam or established their European headquarters in the city, such as leading technology companies Uber, Netflix and Tesla.[20] In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)[21] and 12th globally on quality of living for environment and infrastructure by Mercer.[22] The city was ranked 4th place globally as top tech hub in the Savills Tech Cities 2019 report (2nd in Europe)[23], and 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009.[24] The Port of Amsterdam to this day remains the second in the country, and the fifth largest seaport in Europe.[25] Famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, and philosopher Baruch Spinoza.

The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city centre. Amsterdam's main attractions include its historic canals, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum, Hermitage Amsterdam, the Anne Frank House, the Scheepvaartmuseum, the Amsterdam Museum, the Heineken Experience, the Royal Palace of Amsterdam, Natura Artis Magistra, Hortus Botanicus Amsterdam, NEMO, the red-light district and many cannabis coffee shops. They draw more than 5 million international visitors annually.[26] The city is also well known for its nightlife and festival activity; several of its nightclubs (Melkweg, Paradiso) are among the world's most famous. It is also one of the world's most multicultural cities, with at least 177 nationalities represented.[27]


After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river and a dam across it, giving its name to the village: "Aemstelredamme". The earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated 27 October 1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V.[28][29] This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel freely through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges, locks and dams. The certificate describes the inhabitants as homines manentes apud Amestelledamme (people residing near Amestelledamme).[30] By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam.[28][31]

Other Languages
Acèh: Amsterdam
Afrikaans: Amsterdam
Akan: Amsterdam
Alemannisch: Amsterdam
አማርኛ: አምስተርዳም
Ænglisc: Amsterdam
العربية: أمستردام
aragonés: Amsterdam
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܡܣܛܪܕܐܡ
armãneashti: Amsterdam
arpetan: Amstèrdame
asturianu: Ámsterdam
Avañe'ẽ: Amterdam
azərbaycanca: Amsterdam
تۆرکجه: آمستردام
bamanankan: Amsterdam
Bahasa Banjar: Amsterdam
Bân-lâm-gú: Amsterdam
башҡортса: Амстердам
беларуская: Амстэрдам
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Амстэрдам
भोजपुरी: एम्सटर्डम
Bikol Central: Amsterdam
български: Амстердам
Boarisch: Amsterdam
bosanski: Amsterdam
brezhoneg: Amsterdam
буряад: Амстердам
català: Amsterdam
Чӑвашла: Амстердам
Cebuano: Amsterdam
čeština: Amsterdam
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Amsterdam
Chi-Chewa: Amsterdam
chiShona: Amsterdam
Cymraeg: Amsterdam
dansk: Amsterdam
davvisámegiella: Amsterdam
Deutsch: Amsterdam
dolnoserbski: Amsterdam
eesti: Amsterdam
Ελληνικά: Άμστερνταμ
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Amsterdam
español: Ámsterdam
Esperanto: Amsterdamo
estremeñu: Ámsterdam
euskara: Amsterdam
فارسی: آمستردام
Fiji Hindi: Amsterdam
føroyskt: Amsterdam
français: Amsterdam
Frysk: Amsterdam
furlan: Amsterdam
Gaeilge: Amstardam
Gaelg: Amsterdam
Gagauz: Amsterdam
Gàidhlig: Amsterdam
galego: Ámsterdam
ГӀалгӀай: Амстердам
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Amsterdam
한국어: 암스테르담
Hausa: Amsterdam
հայերեն: Ամստերդամ
hornjoserbsce: Amsterdam
hrvatski: Amsterdam
Ilokano: Amsterdam
Bahasa Indonesia: Amsterdam
interlingua: Amsterdam
Interlingue: Amsterdam
isiZulu: I-Amsterdami
íslenska: Amsterdam
italiano: Amsterdam
עברית: אמסטרדם
Basa Jawa: Amsterdam
Kabɩyɛ: Amstɛrɩdam
Kapampangan: Amsterdam
къарачай-малкъар: Амстердам
ქართული: ამსტერდამი
kaszëbsczi: Amsterdam
қазақша: Амстердам
kernowek: Amsterdam
Kiswahili: Amsterdam
Kreyòl ayisyen: Amstèdam
kurdî: Amsterdam
Кыргызча: Амстердам
кырык мары: Амстердам
Ladino: Amsterdam
لۊری شومالی: آمئستئردام
Latina: Amstelodamum
latviešu: Amsterdama
Lëtzebuergesch: Amsterdam
лезги: Амстердам
lietuvių: Amsterdamas
Ligure: Amsterdam
Limburgs: Amsterdam
Lingua Franca Nova: Amsterdam
Livvinkarjala: Amsterdamu
lumbaart: Amsterdam
magyar: Amszterdam
македонски: Амстердам
Malti: Amsterdam
Māori: Amsterdam
მარგალური: ამსტერდამი
Bahasa Melayu: Amsterdam
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Amsterdam
мокшень: Амстердам
монгол: Амстердам
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အမ်စတာဒမ်မြို့
Nāhuatl: Amsterdam
Dorerin Naoero: Amsterdam
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Amsterdam
Nederlands: Amsterdam
Nedersaksies: Amsterdam
नेपाली: आम्स्टर्डम
नेपाल भाषा: एम्स्तरद्याम
Napulitano: Amsterdam
нохчийн: Амстердам
Nordfriisk: Amsterdam
norsk: Amsterdam
norsk nynorsk: Amsterdam
Novial: Amsterdam
occitan: Amsterdam
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Amsterdam
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਅਮਸਤੱਰਦਮ
پنجابی: ایمسٹرڈیم
Papiamentu: Amsterdam
Перем Коми: Амстердам
Picard: Amsterdam
Piemontèis: Àmsterdam
Plattdüütsch: Amsterdam
polski: Amsterdam
português: Amesterdão
Qaraqalpaqsha: Amsterdam
qırımtatarca: Amsterdam
română: Amsterdam
rumantsch: Amsterdam
Runa Simi: Amsterdam
русиньскый: Амстердам
русский: Амстердам
саха тыла: Амстердам
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱟᱢᱥᱴᱚᱨᱰᱮᱢ
sardu: Amsterdam
Scots: Amsterdam
Seeltersk: Amsterdam
Sesotho: Amsterdam
shqip: Amsterdami
sicilianu: Amsterdam
Simple English: Amsterdam
slovenčina: Amsterdam
slovenščina: Amsterdam
ślůnski: Amsterdam
Soomaaliga: Amistardam
Sranantongo: Damsko
српски / srpski: Амстердам
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Amsterdam
Basa Sunda: Amsterdam
suomi: Amsterdam
svenska: Amsterdam
Tagalog: Amsterdam
Taqbaylit: Amsterdam
tarandíne: Amsterdam
татарча/tatarça: Амстердам
тоҷикӣ: Амстердам
lea faka-Tonga: Amsterdam
Türkçe: Amsterdam
Türkmençe: Amsterdam
удмурт: Амстердам
українська: Амстердам
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئامستېردام
vèneto: Amsterdam
vepsän kel’: Amsterdam
Tiếng Việt: Amsterdam
Volapük: Amsterdam
Võro: Amsterdam
West-Vlams: Amsterdam
Winaray: Amsterdam
Wolof: Amsterdam
ייִדיש: אמסטערדאם
Yorùbá: Amsterdam
Zazaki: Amsterdam
Zeêuws: Amsterdam
žemaitėška: Amsterdams