Amritsar

Amritsar
The Harmandir Sahib of Amritsar
The Harmandir Sahib of Amritsar
Nicknames: 
Map
Amritsar is located in Punjab
Amritsar
Amritsar
Amritsar is located in India
Amritsar
Amritsar
Coordinates: 31°38′N 74°52′E / 31°38′N 74°52′E / 31.64; 74.86

Amritsar (About this soundpronunciation ;Punjabi pronunciation: [əmːɾɪtsəɾ]), historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in north-western India which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district - located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab.

According to the 2011 census, the population of Amritsar was 1,132,761. It is one of ten Municipal Corporations in the state and Karamjit Singh Rintu is the current mayor of the city.[3] The city is situated 217 km (135 mi) northwest of state capital Chandigarh and 455 km (283 miles) northwest of New Delhi, the national capital. It is near Pakistan, with the Wagah Border being only 28 km (17.4 mi) away.

Amritsar has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India.[4]

History

The Bhagwan Valmiki Tirath Sthal situated at Amritsar is believed to be the Ashram site of Maharishi Valmiki, the writer of Ramayana.[5][6] As per the Ramayana, Sita gave birth to Lava and Kusha, sons of lord Rama at Ramtirth ashram. Large number of people visit Ramtirth Temple at annual fair. Nearby cities to Amritsar, Lahore and Kasur were said to be founded by Lava and Kusha, respectively. During Ashvamedha Yagna by Lord Rama, Lava and Kush captured the ritual horse and tied Lord Hanuman to a tree near to today's Durgiana Temple. During Navratra festivities it is considered to be auspicious by Hindu population of the city to visit that temple.[7][better source needed]

Founding of Amritsar City

Guru Ram Das, the fourth Sikh guru is credited with founding the holy city of Amritsar in the Sikh tradition.[8][9] Two versions of stories exist regarding the land where Ram Das settled. In one based on a Gazetteer record, the land was purchased with Sikh donations, for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung.[10][11]

According to the Sikh historical records, the site was chosen by Guru Amar Das and called Guru Da Chakk, after he had asked Ram Das to find land to start a new town with a man made pool as its central point.[10][12][13] After his coronation in 1574, and the hostile opposition he faced from the sons of Amar Das,[14] Ram Das founded the town named after him as "Ramdaspur". He started by completing the pool, and building his new official Guru centre and home next to it. He invited merchants and artisans from other parts of India to settle into the new town with him.[10] The town expanded during the time of Arjan financed by donations and constructed by voluntary work. The town grew to become the city of Amritsar, and the pool area grew into a temple complex after his son built the gurdwara Harmandir Sahib, and installed the scripture of Sikhism inside the new temple in 1604.[9]

The construction activity between 1574 and 1604 is described in Mahima Prakash Vartak, a semi-historical Sikh hagiography text likely composed in 1741, and the earliest known document dealing with the lives of all the ten Gurus.[15]

Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib near the Golden Temple.

Jallianwala Bagh massacre

The Jallianwalla Bagh in 1919, months after the massacre
Bullet marks on the walls of the park premises

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, involving the killings of hundreds of Indian civilians on the orders of a senior British military officer, Reginald Edward Harry Dyer, took place on 13 April 1919 in the heart of Amritsar, the holiest city of the Sikhs, on a day sacred to them as the birth anniversary of the Khalsa (Vaisakhi day).

In the Punjab, during World War I (1914–18), there was considerable unrest particularly among the Sikhs, first on account of the demolition of a boundary wall of Gurdwara Rakab Ganj at New Delhi and later because of the activities and trials of the Ghadarites, almost all of whom were Sikhs. In India as a whole, too, there had been a spurt in political activity mainly owing to the emergence of two leaders: Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948) who after a period of struggle against the British in South Africa, had returned to India in January 1915, and Annie Besant (1847–1933), head of the Theosophical Society of India, who on 11 April 1916 established the Home Rule League with autonomy for India as its goal. In December 1916, the Indian National Congress, at its annual session held at Lucknow, passed a resolution asking the king to issue a proclamation announcing that it is the "aim and intention of British policy to confer self-government on India at an early date".[16]

On 10 April 1919, Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew, two popular proponents of the Satyagraha movement led by Gandhi, were called to the deputy commissioner's residence, arrested and sent off by car to Dharamsetla, a hill town, now in Himachal Pradesh. This led to a general strike in Amritsar. Excited groups of citizens soon merged into a crowd of about 50,000 marching on to protest to the deputy commissioner against the arrest of the two leaders. The crowd, however, was stopped and fired upon near the railway foot-bridge. According to the official version, the number of those killed was 12 and of those wounded between 20 and 30. Evidence before an inquiry of the Indian National Congress put the number of the dead between 20 and 30.

Three days later, on 13 April, the traditional festival of Baisakhi, thousands of Sikhs, Muslims and Hindus gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh. An hour after the meeting began as scheduled at 16:30, Dyer arrived with a group of sixty-five Gurkha and twenty-five Baluchi soldiers. Without warning the crowd to disperse, Dyer blocked the main exits and ordered his troops to begin shooting toward the densest sections of the crowd. Firing continued for approximately ten minutes. A British inquiry into the massacre placed the death toll at 379. The Indian National Congress determined that approximately 1,000 people were killed.

Operation Blue Star

Operation Blue Star (1 – 6 June 1984) was an Indian military operation ordered by Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India[17] to curb and remove Sikh militants from the Golden Temple in Amritsar. The operation was carried out by Indian army troops with tanks and armoured vehicles.[18] Militarily successful, the operation aroused immense controversy, and the government's justification for the timing and style of the attack are hotly debated.[19] Operation Blue Star was included in the Top 10 Political Disgraces by India Today magazine.[20]

Official reports put the number of deaths among the Indian army at 83, with 493 civilians and Sikh militants killed.[21][22] In addition, the CBI is considered responsible for seizing historical artefacts and manuscripts in the Sikh Reference Library before burning it down.[23] [24] Four months after the operation, on 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two of her Sikh bodyguards in what is viewed as an act of vengeance. Following her assassination, more than 3,000 Sikhs were killed in anti-Sikh pogroms.[25]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Amritsar
العربية: أمريتسار
azərbaycanca: Amritsar
تۆرکجه: امریتسار
বাংলা: অমৃতসর
Bân-lâm-gú: Amritsar (siâⁿ)
भोजपुरी: अमृतसर
български: Амритсар
буряад: Амритсар
català: Amritsar
čeština: Amritsar
Cymraeg: Amritsar
dansk: Amritsar
Deutsch: Amritsar
eesti: Amritsar
Ελληνικά: Αμριτσάρ
español: Amritsar
Esperanto: Amritsar
euskara: Amritsar
فارسی: امریتسار
français: Amritsar
galego: Amritsar
ગુજરાતી: અમૃતસર
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: अमृतसर
한국어: 암리차르
հայերեն: Ամրիթսար
हिन्दी: अमृतसर
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: অমৃতসর
Bahasa Indonesia: Amritsar
íslenska: Amritsar
italiano: Amritsar
עברית: אמריטסר
Basa Jawa: Amritsar
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಅಮೃತಸರ
Kapampangan: Amritsar
ქართული: ამრიტსარი
қазақша: Амритсар
kurdî: Amritsar
Кыргызча: Амритсар
latviešu: Amritsara
Lëtzebuergesch: Amritsar
lietuvių: Amritsaras
magyar: Amritszár
मैथिली: अमृतसर
Malagasy: Amritsar
മലയാളം: അമൃത്‌സർ
मराठी: अमृतसर
მარგალური: ამრიტსარი
Bahasa Melayu: Amritsar
Nederlands: Amritsar (stad)
नेपाली: अमृतसर
नेपाल भाषा: अमृतसर
нохчийн: Амритсар
norsk: Amritsar
norsk nynorsk: Amritsar
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଅମୃତସର
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Amritsar
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤਸਰ
پنجابی: امرتسر
پښتو: امريتسر
polski: Amritsar
português: Amritsar
română: Amritsar
русский: Амритсар
संस्कृतम्: अमृतसर
Scots: Amritsar
Simple English: Amritsar
سنڌي: امرتسر
slovenčina: Amritsar
slovenščina: Amritsar
کوردی: ئامریتسار
српски / srpski: Амрицар
suomi: Amritsar
svenska: Amritsar
తెలుగు: అమృత్‌సర్
Türkçe: Amritsar
українська: Амрітсар
اردو: امرتسر
Tiếng Việt: Amritsar
Winaray: Amritsar
吴语: 阿姆利则
粵語: 阿姆利則
中文: 阿姆利则