American Revolutionary War

  • american revolutionary war
    americanrevolutionarywarmon.jpg
    clockwise: surrender of lord cornwallis after the siege of yorktown, battle of trenton, the death of general warren at the battle of bunker hill, battle of long island, battle of guilford court house
    dateapril 19, 1775 – september 3, 1783
    (8 years, 4 months and 15 days)
    ratification effective: may 12, 1784
    (9 years and 23 days)
    location
    eastern north america, caribbean sea, indian subcontinent, africa, the atlantic ocean, and the indian ocean
    result
    territorial
    changes
    • great britain cedes to the united states the area east of the mississippi river and south of the great lakes and st. lawrence river
    • great britain cedes east florida, west florida, and menorca to spain
    • great britain cedes tobago and senegal to france
    • dutch republic cedes negapatnam to great britain
    belligerents
    united states[1]
    vermont republic[2]
    kingdom of france france[3]
    spain spain[4]
    co-belligerents:
    dutch republic dutch republic[5]
    mysore[6]

    kingdom of great britain great britain

    • kingdom of great britain quebec
    • kingdom of great britain loyalists
    hanover[8][9]
    germans:
    wappen-hk (1736-1804).svg hesse-kassel
    wappen-hk (1736-1804).svg hesse-hanau
    coat of arms of the principality of waldeck and pyrmont.svg waldeck
    coat of arms of brunswick-lüneburg.svg brunswick
    wappen brandenburg-ansbach.svg ansbach
    blason principauté d'anhalt-zerbst (xviiie siècle).svg anhalt-zerbst
    commanders and leaders
    george washington
    thomas chittenden
    kingdom of france louis xvi
    spain charles iii
    dutch republic william v
    kingdom of mysore hyder ali
    kingdom of mysore tipu sultan
    full list...
    kingdom of great britain george iii
    kingdom of great britain lord north
    kingdom of great britain lord george germain
    full list...
    strength

    united states:
    army & militia:
    40,000 (average)[12]
    200,000 (total served)[13]
    navy:
    5,000 sailors (peak 1779)[14]
    53 frigates and sloops (total served)[14]
    state navies:
    106 ships (total served)[15]
    privateers:
    55,000 sailors (total served)[16]
    1,697 ships[17]

    allies:
    army:
    63,000 french and spanish (gibraltar)[18][19]
    navy:
    146 ships-of-the-line (1782)[20]

    american indian allies:

    unknown

    great britain:
    army:
    48,000 (america peak)[21]
    121,000 (global 1781)[22]
    7,500 (gibraltar)[23]
    navy:
    94 ships-of-the-line (1782)[20]
    104 frigates (1781)[24]
    37 sloops (1781)[25]
    171,000 sailors[26]

    loyalists:
    25,000 (total served)[27]

    hanoverians:
    2,365 (total served)[28]

    germans:
    29,875 (total served)[29]

    american indian allies:

    13,000[30]
    casualties and losses

    united states:
    25,000–70,000 total dead[12][31]
    6,800 killed in battle
    10,000 pows died
    17,000 died of disease[32]

    france:
    ~7,000 dead
    (2,112 in the united states)[33]
    19 ships of the line (1,346 guns) lost[34]
    30 frigates (988 guns) lost[34]

    spain:
    5,000 dead[35]
    (124 in british west florida)[36]
    4,000 pows died[37]
    8 ships of the line (572 guns) lost[34]
    11 frigates (326 guns) lost[34]

    netherlands:
    500 killed[35]


    total: 37,000–82,500+ soldiers dead

    great britain:
    army:
    43,633 total dead[38]
    ~9,372 killed in battle[39]
    27,000 died of disease[12][40]
    navy:
    1,243 killed in battle
    18,500 died of disease (1776–1780)[41]
    42,000 deserted[42]
    20 ships of the line (1,396 guns) lost[34]
    70 frigates (1,978 guns) lost[34]
    2,200 merchant ships (600 to american privateers) lost[34]
    75 privateering ships lost[34]

    germans:
    7,774 total dead
    1,800 killed in battle
    4,888 deserted[12]

    loyalists:
    7,000 total dead
    1,700 killed in battle
    5,300 died of disease (estimated)[43]


    total: 78,200+ soldiers dead

    the american revolutionary war (1775–1783), also known as the american war of independence,[44] was fought primarily between the kingdom of great britain and her thirteen colonies in america; it resulted in the overthrow of british rule in the colonies and the establishment of the united states of america.[n 1]

    after 1765, growing constitutional and political differences strained the relationship between great britain and its american colonies. patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the stamp act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the sons of liberty destroying a shipment of tea in boston harbor. britain responded by closing boston harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against massachusetts bay colony. massachusetts colonists responded with the suffolk resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the crown. twelve colonies formed a continental congress (with the exception of georgia) to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power.[45]

    british attempts to disarm the massachusetts militia in concord led to open combat and a british defeat on april 19, 1775. militia forces then besieged boston, forcing a british evacuation in march 1776, and congress appointed george washington to command the continental army. concurrently, the americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade quebec and raise insurrection against the british. on july 2, 1776, the second continental congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on july 4. sir william howe launched a british counter-offensive, capturing new york city and leaving american morale at a low ebb. however, victories at trenton and princeton restored american confidence. in 1777, the british launched an invasion from quebec under john burgoyne, intending to isolate the new england colonies. instead of assisting this effort, howe took his army on a separate campaign against philadelphia, and burgoyne was decisively defeated at saratoga in october 1777.

    burgoyne's defeat had dramatic consequences. france formally allied with the americans and entered the war in 1778, and spain joined the war the following year as an ally of france but not as an ally of the united states. the british mounted a "southern strategy" led by charles cornwallis which hinged upon a loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. cornwallis suffered reversals at king's mountain and cowpens. he retreated to yorktown, virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive french naval victory deprived him of an escape. a franco-american army led by the comte de rochambeau and washington then besieged cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in october 1781.

    whigs in britain had long opposed the pro-war tories in parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. in early 1782, parliament voted to end all offensive operations in america, but the war against france continued overseas. britain remained under siege in gibraltar but scored a major victory over the french navy. on september 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the treaty of paris in which great britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the united states and formally end the war. french involvement had proven decisive,[46] but france made few gains and incurred crippling debts. spain made some territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering gibraltar.[47] the dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to great britain.

  • background
  • course of the war
  • peace of paris
  • aftermath
  • analysis of combatants
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • reference literature
  • further reading
  • external links

American Revolutionary War
AmericanRevolutionaryWarMon.jpg
Clockwise: Surrender of Lord Cornwallis after the Siege of Yorktown, Battle of Trenton, The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker Hill, Battle of Long Island, Battle of Guilford Court House
DateApril 19, 1775 – September 3, 1783
(8 years, 4 months and 15 days)
Ratification effective: May 12, 1784
(9 years and 23 days)
Location
Eastern North America, Caribbean Sea, Indian subcontinent, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Indian Ocean
Result
Territorial
changes
Belligerents
United States[1]
Vermont Republic[2]
Kingdom of France France[3]
Spain Spain[4]
Co-belligerents:
Dutch Republic Dutch Republic[5]
Mysore[6]

Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain

Hanover[8][9]
Germans:
Wappen-HK (1736-1804).svg Hesse-Kassel
Wappen-HK (1736-1804).svg Hesse-Hanau
Coat of Arms of the Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont.svg Waldeck
Coat of Arms of Brunswick-Lüneburg.svg Brunswick
Wappen Brandenburg-Ansbach.svg Ansbach
Blason Principauté d'Anhalt-Zerbst (XVIIIe siècle).svg Anhalt-Zerbst
Commanders and leaders
George Washington
Thomas Chittenden
Kingdom of France Louis XVI
Spain Charles III
Dutch Republic William V
Kingdom of Mysore Hyder Ali
Kingdom of Mysore Tipu Sultan
full list...
Kingdom of Great Britain George III
Kingdom of Great Britain Lord North
Kingdom of Great Britain Lord George Germain
full list...
Strength

United States:
Army & Militia:
40,000 (average)[12]
200,000 (total served)[13]
Navy:
5,000 sailors (peak 1779)[14]
53 frigates and sloops (total served)[14]
State Navies:
106 ships (total served)[15]
Privateers:
55,000 sailors (total served)[16]
1,697 ships[17]

Allies:
Army:
63,000 French and Spanish (Gibraltar)[18][19]
Navy:
146 ships-of-the-line (1782)[20]

American Indian Allies:

Unknown

Great Britain:
Army:
48,000 (America peak)[21]
121,000 (global 1781)[22]
7,500 (Gibraltar)[23]
Navy:
94 ships-of-the-line (1782)[20]
104 frigates (1781)[24]
37 sloops (1781)[25]
171,000 sailors[26]

Loyalists:
25,000 (total served)[27]

Hanoverians:
2,365 (total served)[28]

Germans:
29,875 (total served)[29]

American Indian Allies:

13,000[30]
Casualties and losses

United States:
25,000–70,000 total dead[12][31]
6,800 killed in battle
10,000 POWs died
17,000 died of disease[32]

France:
~7,000 dead
(2,112 in the United States)[33]
19 ships of the line (1,346 guns) lost[34]
30 frigates (988 guns) lost[34]

Spain:
5,000 dead[35]
(124 in British West Florida)[36]
4,000 POWs died[37]
8 ships of the line (572 guns) lost[34]
11 frigates (326 guns) lost[34]

Netherlands:
500 killed[35]


Total: 37,000–82,500+ soldiers dead

Great Britain:
Army:
43,633 total dead[38]
~9,372 killed in battle[39]
27,000 died of disease[12][40]
Navy:
1,243 killed in battle
18,500 died of disease (1776–1780)[41]
42,000 deserted[42]
20 ships of the line (1,396 guns) lost[34]
70 frigates (1,978 guns) lost[34]
2,200 merchant ships (600 to American privateers) lost[34]
75 privateering ships lost[34]

Germans:
7,774 total dead
1,800 killed in battle
4,888 deserted[12]

Loyalists:
7,000 total dead
1,700 killed in battle
5,300 died of disease (estimated)[43]


Total: 78,200+ soldiers dead

The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence,[44] was fought primarily between the Kingdom of Great Britain and her Thirteen Colonies in America; it resulted in the overthrow of British rule in the colonies and the establishment of the United States of America.[N 1]

After 1765, growing constitutional and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its American colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress (with the exception of Georgia) to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power.[45]

British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat and a British defeat on April 19, 1775. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777.

Burgoyne's defeat had dramatic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. The British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781.

Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war against France continued overseas. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,[46] but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar.[47] The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain.

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