Amelia Earhart

Amelia Earhart
Amelia Earhart standing under nose of her Lockheed Model 10-E Electra, small.jpg
Earhart beneath the nose of her Lockheed Model 10-E Electra, March 1937, Oakland, California
Born
Amelia Mary Earhart

(1897-07-24)July 24, 1897
DisappearedJuly 2, 1937 (aged 39)
Pacific Ocean, en route to Howland Island from Lae, Papua New Guinea
StatusDeclared dead in absentia
January 5, 1939(1939-01-05) (aged 41)
Known forMany early aviation records, including first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean
Spouse(s)
Signature
Amelia Earhart (signature).png

Amelia Mary Earhart (t/, born July 24, 1897; disappeared July 2, 1937) was an American aviation pioneer and author.[1][Note 1] Earhart was the first female aviator to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean.[3][Note 2] She received the United States Distinguished Flying Cross for this accomplishment.[5] She set many other records,[2] wrote best-selling books about her flying experiences and was instrumental in the formation of The Ninety-Nines, an organization for female pilots.[6] In 1935, Earhart became a visiting faculty member at Purdue University as an advisor to aeronautical engineering and a career counselor to women students. She was also a member of the National Woman's Party and an early supporter of the Equal Rights Amendment.[7][8]

During an attempt to make a circumnavigational flight of the globe in 1937 in a Purdue-funded Lockheed Model 10-E Electra, Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan disappeared over the central Pacific Ocean near Howland Island. Fascination with her life, career, and disappearance continues to this day.[Note 3]

Early life

Childhood

Earhart as a child

Earhart was the daughter of Samuel "Edwin" Stanton Earhart (1867–1930) and Amelia "Amy" (née Otis; 1869–1962).[10] She was born in Atchison, Kansas, in the home of her maternal grandfather, Alfred Gideon Otis (1827–1912), who was a former federal judge, the president of the Atchison Savings Bank and a leading citizen in the town. Amelia was the second child of the marriage, after an infant was stillborn in August 1896.[11] She was of part German descent. Alfred Otis had not initially favored the marriage and was not satisfied with Edwin's progress as a lawyer.[12]

According to family custom, Earhart was named after her two grandmothers, Amelia Josephine Harres and Mary Wells Patton.[11] From an early age, Amelia was the ringleader while her sister Grace Muriel Earhart (1899–1998), two years her junior, acted as the dutiful follower.[13] Amelia was nicknamed "Meeley" (sometimes "Millie") and Grace was nicknamed "Pidge"; both girls continued to answer to their childhood nicknames well into adulthood.[11] Their upbringing was unconventional since Amy Earhart did not believe in molding her children into "nice little girls".[14] Meanwhile their maternal grandmother disapproved of the "bloomers" worn by Amy's children and although Earhart liked the freedom they provided, she was aware other girls in the neighborhood did not wear them.

Early influence

1963 U.S. Postal stamp honoring Earhart

A spirit of adventure seemed to abide in the Earhart children, with the pair setting off daily to explore their neighborhood.[Note 4] As a child, Earhart spent long hours playing with sister Pidge, climbing trees, hunting rats with a rifle and "belly-slamming" her sled downhill.[16] Although the love of the outdoors and "rough-and-tumble" play was common to many youngsters, some biographers have characterized the young Earhart as a tomboy.[17] The girls kept "worms, moths, katydids and a tree toad"[18] in a growing collection gathered in their outings. In 1904, with the help of her uncle, she cobbled together a home-made ramp fashioned after a roller coaster she had seen on a trip to St. Louis and secured the ramp to the roof of the family toolshed. Earhart's well-documented first flight ended dramatically. She emerged from the broken wooden box that had served as a sled with a bruised lip, torn dress and a "sensation of exhilaration". She exclaimed, "Oh, Pidge, it's just like flying!"[12]

Although there had been some missteps in Edwin Earhart's career up to that point, in 1907 his job as a claims officer for the Rock Island Railroad led to a transfer to Des Moines, Iowa. The next year, at the age of 10,[19] Earhart saw her first aircraft at the Iowa State Fair in Des Moines.[20][21] Her father tried to interest her and her sister in taking a flight. One look at the rickety "flivver" was enough for Earhart, who promptly asked if they could go back to the merry-go-round.[22] She later described the biplane as "a thing of rusty wire and wood and not at all interesting".[23]

Education

The two sisters, Amelia and Muriel (she went by her middle name from her teens on), remained with their grandparents in Atchison, while their parents moved into new, smaller quarters in Des Moines. During this period, Earhart received a form of home-schooling together with her sister, from her mother and a governess. She later recounted that she was "exceedingly fond of reading"[24] and spent countless hours in the large family library. In 1909, when the family was finally reunited in Des Moines, the Earhart children were enrolled in public school for the first time with Amelia Earhart entering the seventh grade at the age of 12 years.

Family fortunes

Earhart in evening clothes

While the family's finances seemingly improved with the acquisition of a new house and even the hiring of two servants, it soon became apparent that Edwin was an alcoholic. Five years later in 1914, he was forced to retire and although he attempted to rehabilitate himself through treatment, he was never reinstated at the Rock Island Railroad. At about this time, Earhart's grandmother Amelia Otis died suddenly, leaving a substantial estate that placed her daughter's share in a trust, fearing that Edwin's drinking would drain the funds. The Otis house was auctioned along with all of its contents; Earhart was heartbroken and later described it as the end of her childhood.[25]

In 1915, after a long search, Earhart's father found work as a clerk at the Great Northern Railway in St. Paul, Minnesota, where Earhart entered Central High School as a junior. Edwin applied for a transfer to Springfield, Missouri, in 1915 but the current claims officer reconsidered his retirement and demanded his job back, leaving the elder Earhart with nowhere to go. Facing another calamitous move, Amy Earhart took her children to Chicago, where they lived with friends. Earhart made an unusual condition in the choice of her next schooling; she canvassed nearby high schools in Chicago to find the best science program. She rejected the high school nearest her home when she complained that the chemistry lab was "just like a kitchen sink".[26] She eventually enrolled in Hyde Park High School but spent a miserable semester where a yearbook caption captured the essence of her unhappiness, "A.E. – the girl in brown who walks alone".[27]

Earhart graduated from Chicago's Hyde Park High School in 1916.[28] Throughout her troubled childhood, she had continued to aspire to a future career; she kept a scrapbook of newspaper clippings about successful women in predominantly male-oriented fields, including film direction and production, law, advertising, management and mechanical engineering.[19] She began junior college at Ogontz School in Rydal, Pennsylvania, but did not complete her program.[29][Note 5][30]

During Christmas vacation in 1917, Earhart visited her sister in Toronto. World War I had been raging and Earhart saw the returning wounded soldiers. After receiving training as a nurse's aide from the Red Cross, she began work with the Voluntary Aid Detachment at Spadina Military Hospital. Her duties included preparing food in the kitchen for patients with special diets and handing out prescribed medication in the hospital's dispensary.[31][32]

Spanish flu pandemic of 1918

When the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic reached Toronto, Earhart was engaged in arduous nursing duties that included night shifts at the Spadina Military Hospital.[33][34] She became a patient herself, suffering from pneumonia and maxillary sinusitis.[33] She was hospitalized in early November 1918, owing to pneumonia, and discharged in December 1918, about two months after the illness had started.[33] Her sinus-related symptoms were pain and pressure around one eye and copious mucus drainage via the nostrils and throat.[35] While staying in the hospital during the pre-antibiotic era, she had painful minor operations to wash out the affected maxillary sinus,[33][34][35] but these procedures were not successful and Earhart subsequently suffered from worsening headaches. Her convalescence lasted nearly a year, which she spent at her sister's home in Northampton, Massachusetts.[34] She passed the time by reading poetry, learning to play the banjo and studying mechanics.[33] Chronic sinusitis significantly affected Earhart's flying and activities in later life,[35] and sometimes even on the airfield she was forced to wear a bandage on her cheek to cover a small drainage tube.[36]

Early flying experiences

At about that time, Earhart and a young woman friend visited an air fair held in conjunction with the Canadian National Exhibition in Toronto. One of the highlights of the day was a flying exhibition put on by a World War I ace.[37] The pilot overhead spotted Earhart and her friend, who were watching from an isolated clearing, and dived at them. "I am sure he said to himself, 'Watch me make them scamper,'" she said. Earhart stood her ground as the aircraft came close. "I did not understand it at the time," she said, "but I believe that little red airplane said something to me as it swished by."[38]

By 1919 Earhart prepared to enter Smith College but changed her mind and enrolled at Columbia University, in a course in medical studies among other programs.[39] She quit a year later to be with her parents, who had reunited in California.

Neta Snook and Amelia Earhart in front of Earhart's Kinner Airster, c. 1921

In Long Beach, on December 28, 1920, Earhart and her father visited an airfield where Frank Hawks (who later gained fame as an air racer) gave her a ride that would forever change Earhart's life. "By the time I had got two or three hundred feet [60–90 m] off the ground," she said, "I knew I had to fly."[40] After that 10-minute flight (which cost her father $10), she immediately determined to learn to fly. Working at a variety of jobs including photographer, truck driver, and stenographer at the local telephone company, she managed to save $1,000 for flying lessons. Earhart had her first lesson on January 3, 1921, at Kinner Field near Long Beach. Her teacher was Anita "Neta" Snook, a pioneer female aviator who used a surplus Curtiss JN-4 "Canuck" for training. Earhart arrived with her father and a singular request: "I want to fly. Will you teach me?"[41] In order to reach the airfield, Earhart had to take a bus to the end of the line, then walk four miles (6 km). Earhart's mother also provided part of the $1,000 "stake" against her "better judgement".[42]

Earhart's commitment to flying required her to accept the frequent hard work and rudimentary conditions that accompanied early aviation training. She chose a leather jacket, but aware that other aviators would be judging her, she slept in it for three nights to give the jacket a "worn" look. To complete her image transformation, she also cropped her hair short in the style of other female flyers.[43] Six months later, Earhart purchased a secondhand bright yellow Kinner Airster biplane she nicknamed "The Canary". On October 22, 1922, Earhart flew the Airster to an altitude of 14,000 feet (4,300 m), setting a world record for female pilots. On May 15, 1923, Earhart became the 16th woman in the United States to be issued a pilot's license (#6017)[44] by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI).[45][46] [Note 6]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Amelia Earhart
aragonés: Amelia Earhart
asturianu: Amelia Earhart
azərbaycanca: Ameliya Erhart
Bahasa Banjar: Amelia Earhart
Bân-lâm-gú: Amelia Earhart
беларуская: Амелія Эрхарт
български: Амелия Еърхарт
bosanski: Amelia Earhart
brezhoneg: Amelia Earhart
Ελληνικά: Αμέλια Έρχαρτ
español: Amelia Earhart
Esperanto: Amelia Earhart
føroyskt: Amelia Earhart
français: Amelia Earhart
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Amelia Earhart
hrvatski: Amelia Earhart
Bahasa Indonesia: Amelia Earhart
íslenska: Amelia Earhart
italiano: Amelia Earhart
latviešu: Amēlija Erharte
Lëtzebuergesch: Amelia Earhart
македонски: Амелија Ерхарт
Malagasy: Amelia Earhart
Bahasa Melayu: Amelia Earhart
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အဲရဟတ်၊ အေ
Nederlands: Amelia Earhart
norsk nynorsk: Amelia Earhart
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Amelia Earhart
Plattdüütsch: Amelia Earhart
português: Amelia Earhart
română: Amelia Earhart
Simple English: Amelia Earhart
slovenčina: Amelia Earhartová
slovenščina: Amelia Earhart
српски / srpski: Амелија Ерхарт
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Amelia Earhart
Türkçe: Amelia Earhart
українська: Амелія Ергарт
Tiếng Việt: Amelia Earhart
粵語: 艾美麗雅