Amazon River

Amazon River (Amazonas)
Apurímac, Ene, Tambo, Ucayali, Solimões
River
Amazon River - Flickr - pellaea.jpg
Amazon River near Indiana, Peru
CountriesBrazil, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador
Tributaries
 - leftMarañón, Japurá/Caquetá, Rio Negro/Guainía, Putumayo
 - rightUcayali, Purús, Madeira, Tapajós, Xingu
CityIquitos (Peru); Leticia (Colombia);
Tabatinga (Brazil); Tefé (Brazil);
Itacoatiara (Brazil) Parintins (Brazil);
Óbidos (Brazil); Santarém (Brazil);
Almeirim (Brazil); Macapá (Brazil);
Manaus (Brazil)
SourceRio Mantaro
 - locationHuancayo, Huancayo Province, Peru
 - elevation5,220 m (17,126 ft)
 - coordinates10°43′55″S 76°38′52″W / 10°43′55″S 76°38′52″W / -10.73194; -76.64778
MouthAtlantic Ocean
 - elevation0 m (0 ft)
 - coordinates0°42′28″N 50°5′22″W / 0°42′28″N 50°5′22″W / 0.70778; -50.08944 [1]
Length6,992.6 km (4,345 mi) [2]
Basin7,050,000 km2 (2,722,000 sq mi) [2]
Discharge
 - average209,000 m3/s (7,381,000 cu ft/s) [3]
 - max340,000 m3/s (12,007,000 cu ft/s)
 - min180,000 m3/s (6,357,000 cu ft/s)
Amazonrivermap.svg
Amazon River and its drainage basin
Topography of the Amazon River Basin

The Amazon River (US: n/, UK: ən/; Spanish and Portuguese: Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and by some definitions it is the longest.[2][4][n 1]

The headwaters of the Apurímac River on Nevado Mismi had been considered for nearly a century as the Amazon’s most distant source, until a 2014 study found it to be the Cordillera Rumi Cruz at the headwaters of the Mantaro River in Peru.[10] The Mantaro and Apurímac join, and with other tributaries form the Ucayali River, which in turn meets the Marañón River upstream of Iquitos, Peru, to form what countries other than Brazil consider to be the main stem of the Amazon. Brazilians call this section the Solimões River above its confluence with the Rio Negro[11] to form what Brazilians call the Amazon at the Meeting of Waters (Portuguese: Encontro das Águas) at Manaus, the river's largest city.

At an average discharge of about 209,000 cubic metres per second (7,400,000 cu ft/s; 209,000,000 L/s; 55,000,000 USgal/s)—approximately 6,591 cubic kilometres per annum (1,581 cu mi/a), greater than the next seven largest independent rivers combined—the Amazon represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean.[12] The Amazon basin is the largest drainage basin in the world, with an area of approximately 7,050,000 square kilometres (2,720,000 sq mi). The portion of the river's drainage basin in Brazil alone is larger than any other river's basin. The Amazon enters Brazil with only one-fifth of the flow it finally discharges into the Atlantic Ocean, yet already has a greater flow at this point than the discharge of any other river.[13][14]

Origin of the name

The river was initially known by Europeans as the Marañón and the Peruvian part of the river is still known by that name today. It later became known as the Rio Amazonas in Spanish and Portuguese, or The Amazon in English.

The name Rio Amazonas was given after native warriors attacked a 16th century expedition by Francisco de Orellana. The warriors were led by women, reminding de Orellana of the Amazon warriors, a tribe of women warriors related to Iranian Scythians and Sarmatians[15][16] mentioned in Greek mythology.

The word Amazon itself may be derived from the Iranian compound *ha-maz-an- "(one) fighting together"[17] or ethnonym *ha-mazan- "warriors", a word attested indirectly through a derivation, a denominal verb in Hesychius of Alexandria's gloss "ἁμαζακάραν· πολεμεῖν. Πέρσαι" ("hamazakaran: 'to make war' in Persian"), where it appears together with the Indo-Iranian root *kar- "make" (from which Sanskrit karma is also derived).[18]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Амазонэ
адыгабзэ: Амазонкэ
Afrikaans: Amasonerivier
Alemannisch: Amazonas
Ænglisc: Amāzanēa
Аҧсшәа: Амазонка
العربية: نهر الأمازون
aragonés: Río Amazonas
অসমীয়া: আমাজান নদী
asturianu: Ríu Amazones
Avañe'ẽ: Paranaguasu
Aymar aru: Amasunu jawira
azərbaycanca: Amazon çayı
تۆرکجه: آمازون
বাংলা: আমাজন নদী
Bân-lâm-gú: Amazon Hô
башҡортса: Амазонка
беларуская: Амазонка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Амазонка
भोजपुरी: अमेजन नदी
Bikol Central: Salog Amazon
български: Амазонка
Boarisch: Amazonas
bosanski: Amazon
brezhoneg: Amazon
català: Riu Amazones
Cebuano: Amazon River
čeština: Amazonka
Cymraeg: Afon Amazonas
Deutsch: Amazonas
डोटेली: अमेजन नदी
eesti: Amazonas
Ελληνικά: Αμαζόνιος
español: Río Amazonas
Esperanto: Amazono (rivero)
euskara: Amazonas
Fiji Hindi: Amazon Naddi
føroyskt: Amasoná
français: Amazone (fleuve)
Gaeilge: An Amasóin
ГӀалгӀай: Амазонка
贛語: 亞馬孫河
한국어: 아마존강
Hausa: Amazon
հայերեն: Ամազոն
हिन्दी: अमेज़न नदी
hornjoserbsce: Amaconas
hrvatski: Amazona
Ido: Amazon
Bahasa Indonesia: Sungai Amazon
interlingua: Fluvio Amazon
isiXhosa: Umlambo iAmazon
íslenska: Amasónfljót
עברית: אמזונאס
Basa Jawa: Kali Amazon
Kabɩyɛ: Amazonii Pɔɔ
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಅಮೆಜಾನ್
къарачай-малкъар: Амазонка
ქართული: ამაზონი
қазақша: Амазон өзені
kernowek: Avon Amazon
Kiswahili: Amazonas (mto)
kurdî: Amazon
Кыргызча: Амазонка
кырык мары: Амазонка
latviešu: Amazone
Lëtzebuergesch: Amazonas
лезги: Амазун
lietuvių: Amazonė (upė)
lingála: Amazoni (ebale)
Lingua Franca Nova: Rio Amazona
la .lojban.: amazonas. zei rirxe
lumbaart: Riu di Amazzun
magyar: Amazonas
मैथिली: अमेजन नदी
македонски: Амазон
Malagasy: Amazôna
മലയാളം: ആമസോൺ നദി
مازِرونی: آمازون درکا
Bahasa Melayu: Sungai Amazon
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Amazon Ò̤
Mirandés: Riu Amazonas
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အမေဇုံမြစ်
Nederlands: Amazone (rivier)
नेपाली: अमेजन नदी
नेपाल भाषा: अमेजन खुसि
日本語: アマゾン川
нохчийн: Амазонка (хи)
norsk: Amazonas
norsk nynorsk: Amazonaselva
олык марий: Амазонка
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Amazon daryosi
Papiamentu: Riu Amazonas
Patois: Amazan Riva
Piemontèis: Ri dj'Amàsson
polski: Amazonka
português: Rio Amazonas
Qaraqalpaqsha: Amazon da'ryası
qırımtatarca: Amazon özeni
română: Amazon (fluviu)
rumantsch: Amazonas
русиньскый: Амазонка (ріка)
русский: Амазонка
саха тыла: Амазонка
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱟᱢᱟᱡᱚᱱ ᱜᱟᱰᱟ
संस्कृतम्: ऍमज़ॉन नदी
Seeltersk: Amazonas
Simple English: Amazon River
slovenčina: Amazonka (rieka)
slovenščina: Amazonka
ślůnski: Amazůnka
српски / srpski: Амазон
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Amazona
svenska: Amazonfloden
Tagalog: Ilog Amasona
tarandíne: Rio de le Amazzone
татарча/tatarça: Амазонка
тоҷикӣ: Амазонка
Türkçe: Amazon Nehri
Türkmençe: Amazonka
українська: Амазонка
Vahcuengh: Dah Yamajsenhoz
vepsän kel’: Amazonas
Tiếng Việt: Sông Amazon
Võro: Amazonas
Winaray: Salog Amasona
吴语: 亚马逊河
Yorùbá: Odò Amasónì
粵語: 亞馬遜河
žemaitėška: Amazuonė
中文: 亚马逊河