Amadeo I of Spain

Amadeo I
Duke of Aosta
Amadeo I de España, de Vicente Palmaroli (Museo del Prado).jpg
King of Spain
Reign16 November 1870 – 11 February 1873
PredecessorIsabella II
as Queen of Spain
Francisco Serrano
as Regent of Spain
SuccessorEstanislao Figueras
as President of the Republic
Alfonso XII
as King of Spain
Prime Ministers
Born(1845-05-30)30 May 1845
Royal Palace, Turin, Sardinia
Died18 January 1890(1890-01-18) (aged 44)
Royal Palace, Turin, Kingdom of Italy
Burial
SpouseMaria Vittoria dal Pozzo
Maria Letizia Bonaparte
IssuePrince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta
Prince Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Turin
Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi
Prince Umberto, Count of Salemi
Full name
Italian: Amedeo Ferdinando Maria di Savoia
HouseSavoy
FatherVictor Emmanuel II of Italy
MotherAdelaide of Austria
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Amadeo I (Italian: Amedeo, sometimes anglicized as Amadeus; 30 May 1845 – 18 January 1890) was the only King of Spain from the House of Savoy. He was the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy and was known for most of his life as the Duke of Aosta, but he reigned briefly as King of Spain from 1870 to 1873.

He was elected by the Cortes as Spain's monarch in 1870, following the deposition of Isabella II, and was sworn in the following year. Amadeo's reign was fraught with growing republicanism, Carlist rebellions in the north, and the Cuban independence movement. He abdicated and returned to Italy in 1873, and the First Spanish Republic was declared as a result.

Granted the hereditary title of Duke of Aosta in the year of his birth, he founded the Aosta branch of Italy's royal House of Savoy, which is junior in agnatic descent to the branch descended from King Umberto I that reigned in Italy until 1946, but senior to the branch of the Dukes of Genoa.

Early life and first marriage

The Duke of Aosta in 1870.
The Duke of Aosta with his first wife, Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo.

Prince Amedeo of Savoy was born in Turin (then part of the Kingdom of Sardinia). He was the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II (King of Piedmont, Savoy, Sardinia and, later, first King of Italy) and of Archduchess Adelaide of Austria. He was styled the Duke of Aosta from birth.

Entering the army as captain in 1859 he fought through the Third Italian War of Independence in 1866 with the rank of major-general, leading his brigade into action at the Battle of Custoza and being wounded at Monte Torre. In 1868, after his marriage, he was created vice admiral of the Italian navy, but this position ended when he ascended the Spanish throne.[1]

In 1867 his father yielded to the entreaties of parliamentary deputy Francisco Cassins, and on 30 May of that year, Amedeo was married to Donna Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo. The King initially opposed the match on the grounds that her family was of insufficient rank, as well as his hopes for his son's marriage to a German princess.[2] Despite her princely title, Donna Maria Vittoria was not of royal birth, belonging rather to the Piedmontese nobility. She was, however, the sole heir of her father's vast fortune,[2] which subsequent Dukes of Aosta inherited, thereby obtaining wealth independent of their dynastic appanage and allowances from Italy's kings.[2] The wedding day of Prince Amedeo and Donna Maria Vittoria was marred by the death of a stationmaster who was crushed under the wheels of the honeymoon train.[3]

In March 1870, the Duchess appealed to the King to remonstrate with his son for marital infidelities that caused her hurt and embarrassment. But the King wrote in reply that, while understanding her feelings, he considered that she had no right to dictate her husband's behaviour and that her jealousy was unbecoming.[2]

Other Languages
العربية: أماديو الأول
български: Амадей I
Bahasa Indonesia: Amadeo I dari Spanyol
latviešu: Amadeo I
македонски: Амадеј I (Шпанија)
српски / srpski: Амадео I од Шпаније
suomi: Amadeus I
українська: Амадей I