"Unite the Right" participants preparing to enter Emancipation Park in Charlottesville, Virginia on August 12, 2017. They carry Confederate battle flags, Gadsden flags and a Nazi flag.
An alt-right Donald Trump supporter at the March 4 Trump in Saint Paul, Minnesota. (Image digitally altered[notes 1])

The alt-right, or alternative right, is a loosely connected and somewhat ill-defined[1] grouping of American white supremacists/white nationalists, white separatists, anti-Semites, neo-Nazis, neo-fascists, neo-Confederates, Holocaust deniers, conspiracy theorists and other far-right[2]fringe hate groups.[3] The alt-right intersects with, and partially emerged from, the ideas and rhetoric of men's rights activists,[4] many but not all of whom have come to embrace the alt-right's platform.[5]

Alt-right beliefs have been described as isolationist, protectionist, anti-Semitic and white supremacist,[6][7][8] frequently overlapping with neo-Nazism,[9][10][11][12] Identitarianism,[13] nativism, xenophobia, Islamophobia, and Counter-jihad,[14][15] opposition to immigration, anti-multiculturalism, antifeminism, misogyny, homophobia, and transphobia,[9][16][17][12] right-wing populism[18][19] and the neoreactionary movement.[6][20] The concept has further been associated with several groups such as American nationalists, paleoconservatives, anarcho-capitalists, national-anarchists,[21] paleolibertarians, Christian fundamentalists, neo-monarchists, men's rights advocates and the 2016 presidential campaign of Donald Trump.[14][19][20][22][23][13] White supremacist[24] Richard B. Spencer initially promoted the term in 2010 in reference to a movement centered on white nationalism;[25] according to the Associated Press, he did so to disguise overt racism, white supremacism, neo-fascism and neo-Nazism.[26]

The term drew considerable media attention and controversy during and after the 2016 United States presidential election.[27] The Trump administration has included several figures who are associated with the alt-right, such as Senior Advisor to the President Stephen Miller, Special Assistant to the President Julia Hahn, former National Security Advisor Michael Flynn, former Deputy Assistant to the President Sebastian Gorka and former White House Chief Strategist Steve Bannon.[28] In 2016, Bannon described Breitbart (a primarily online news organization) as "the platform for the alt-right", with the goal of promoting the ideology.[29] After Trump's election, other Republican candidates for office, such as Roy Moore, Corey Stewart, Josh Mandel, Joe Arpaio and Paul Nehlen, ran with the support of the movement.[30] On the other hand, Republicans and conservatives such as Ben Shapiro and Cory Gardner[31] and members of the conservative Heritage Foundation[32] have condemned the alt-right for its racism, antisemitism and prejudice.

According to a Southern Poverty Law Center report published in February 2018, over 100 people have been killed and injured in 13 attacks by alt-right-influenced perpetrators since 2014. Political scientists and leaders have argued that it should be classified as a terrorist or extremist movement. The report expressed strong concern about the alt-right, claiming that its ideologies are radicalizing young, suburban white males and helped inspire the 2014 Isla Vista killings, Toronto van attack, the Charleston church shooting, the Quebec City mosque shooting, the vehicle ramming attack at the Unite the Right rally, the Umpqua Community College shooting, the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting as well as other lower-profile attacks and acts of violence.[33] In 2017, terrorist attacks and violence affiliated with the alt-right and white supremacy were the leading cause of extremist violence in the United States, according to the Anti-Defamation League.[34][35]

Etymology and scope

The term "alt-right" was first used in November 2008 by self-described paleoconservative philosopher Paul Gottfried, addressing the H. L. Mencken Club about what he called "the alternative right".[36] This talk was published in December under the title "The Decline and Rise of the Alternative Right"[37] in the conservative Taki's Magazine, becoming the earliest published usage of the phrase in its current context according to Slate. In 2009, two more posts at Taki's Magazine (one by Patrick J. Ford and the other by Jack Hunter) further discussed the alternative right.[38] Since 2016, the term has been commonly attributed to Richard B. Spencer, president of the National Policy Institute and founder of Alternative Right.[18][39]

As of February 2018, the scope of the term "alt-right" is still in flux. The Associated Press advises its journalists to not use the term without providing an internal definition, due to its vagueness.[40] The Anti-Defamation League states that "alt-right" is a "vague term actually encompass[ing] a range of people on the extreme right who reject mainstream conservatism in favor of forms of conservatism that embrace implicit or explicit racism or white supremacy".[41] Conservative writer Ben Shapiro claims that the American Left has attempted "to lump in the Right with the alt-right by accepting a broader, false definition of the alt-right that could include traditional conservatism",[42] but other conservatives have advocated for a broader definition. For instance, Allum Bokhari and Milo Yiannopoulos of Breitbart News described the alt-right in March 2016 as "an amorphous movement ... some—mostly Establishment types—insist it's little more than a vehicle for the worst dregs of human society: anti-Semites, white supremacists, and other members of the Stormfront set". On the other hand, the Southern Poverty Law Center states that "[t]he Alt-Right is intimately connected [to] American Identitarianism, a version of an ideology popular in Europe that emphasizes cultural and racial homogeneity within different countries" and also notes that multiple alt-right leaders, including Richard B. Spencer, embrace explicit antisemitism.[43]

In 2016, the Associated Press described the "alt-right" label as "currently embraced by some white supremacists and white nationalists" that "may exist primarily as a public-relations device to make its supporters' actual beliefs less clear and more acceptable to a broader audience". The Associated Press said that it has previously called such beliefs "racist, neo-Nazi or white supremacist".[44]

Other Languages
Deutsch: Alt-Right
Esperanto: Alt-right
français: Alt-right
한국어: 대안우파
Bahasa Indonesia: Alt-right
italiano: Alt-right
Nederlands: Alt-right
norsk: Alt-right
polski: Alt-right
română: Alt-right
Simple English: Alt-right
suomi: Alt-right
svenska: Alt-right
Tiếng Việt: Alt-right
中文: 另类右派