• Illahabad
Clockwise from top left: All Saints Cathedral, Khusro Bagh, the Allahabad High Court, the New Yamuna Bridge near Sangam, the skyline of Civil Lines, the University of Allahabad, Thornhill Mayne Memorial at Alfred Park and Anand Bhavan.
The Sangam City,[1] City of Prime Ministers,[2]
Abode of God[3]
Allahabad is located in Uttar Pradesh
Location of Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh
Allahabad is located in India
Allahabad (India)
Coordinates: 25°27′N 81°51′E / 25°27′N 81°51′E / 25.450; 81.850

Allahabad (About this soundpronunciation ), officially known as Prayagraj, and also known as Illahabad and Prayag, is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the administrative headquarters of Allahabad district—the most populous district in the state and 13th most populous district in India—and the Allahabad division.

The city is the judicial capital of Uttar Pradesh with Allahabad High Court being the highest judicial body in the state. As of 2011, Allahabad is the seventh most populous city in the state, twelfth in Northern India and thirty-eighth in India, with an estimated population of 1.11 million in the city and 1.21 million in its metropolitan region.[8][9] In 2011 it was ranked the world's 40th fastest-growing city.[10][11] Allahabad, in 2016, was also ranked the third most liveable city in the state (after Noida and Lucknow) and sixteenth in the country.[12] The 2016 update of the World Health Organization's Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database found Allahabad to have the third highest mean concentration of "PM2.5" (<2.5 μm diameter) particulate matter in the ambient air among all the 2972 cities tested (after Zabol and Gwalior).[13]

The city lies close to Triveni Sangam, "three-river confluence", original name – Prayag, "place of sacrifice or offering" – which lies at the sangam (confluence) of the Ganga, Yamuna and Sarasvati rivers,[1] a propitious place to conduct sacrifices. It plays a central role in Hindu scriptures. Allahabad was originally called Kaushambi (now a separate district) by the Kuru rulers of Hastinapur, who developed it as their capital. Since then, the city has been a political, cultural and administrative centre of the Doab region. In the early 17th century, Allahabad was a provincial capital in the Mughal Empire under the reign of Jahangir.[14]

Akbarnama mentions that the Mughal emperor Akbar founded a great city in Allahabad. `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni and Nizamuddin Ahmad mention that Akbar laid the foundations of an imperial city there which was called Ilahabas or Ilahabad.[15][16] He was said to be impressed by its strategic location and built a fort there, later renaming it Ilahabas by 1584 which was changed to Allahabad by Shah Jahan.[vague][17]

In 1580, Akbar created the "Subah of Ilahabas" with Allahabad as its capital.[18] In mid-1600, Salim had made an abortive attempt to seize Agra's treasury and came to Allahabad, seizing its treasury and setting himself up as a virtually independent ruler.[19] He was, however, reconciled with Akbar and returned to Allahabad where he stayed before returning to the royal court in 1604.[20]

In 1833 it became the seat of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces region before its capital was moved to Agra in 1835.[21][better source needed] Allahabad became the capital of the North-Western Provinces in 1858 and was the capital of India for a day.[22] The city was the capital of the United Provinces from 1902[22] to 1920[23] and remained at the forefront of national importance during the struggle for Indian independence.[24]

Located in southern Uttar Pradesh, the city's metropolitan area covers 70.5 km2 (27.22 sq miles).[25] Although the city and its surrounding area are governed by several municipalities, a large portion of Allahabad District is governed by the Allahabad City Council. The city is home to colleges, research institutions and 2 dozen central and state government offices. Allahabad has hosted cultural and sporting events, including Kumbh Mela and the Indira Marathon. Although the city's economy was built on tourism, most of its income now derives from real estate and financial services. The Allahabad district is the second-most revenue providing district in Uttar Pradesh.[citation needed]


Prayag or Prayagraj was the ancient name of this city. The name is a sandhi of the words Pra (Sanskrit: प्र:), meaning 'first' and Yag (Sanskrit: यज्ञ; yajña), meaning 'devotion, worship or offering'. It is believed that Lord Brahma performed the very first yajna in this land. Rig Veda and some Puranas mention this place as Prayag giving it a high religious value in India.[26][27] The word Prayag also means "Confluence of Rivers". It is here the rivers Ganga, Yamuna and Sarasvati meet. Prayagraj is also called the "Emperor of Five Prayags" (Panch Prayag).[28]

After Mughal invasion, it is said that the Mughal emperor Akbar when visited the region in 1575, was so impressed by the strategic location of the site that he ordered a fort be constructed and renamed it Ilahabas or "Abode of God" by 1584, later changed to Allahabad under Shah Jahan. Speculations regarding its name however, exist. Because of the surrounding people calling it Alhabas, has led to some people holding the view that it was named after Alha from Alha's story.[17] James Forbes' account of the early 1800s claims that it was renamed Allahabad or "abode of God" by Jahangir after he failed to destroy the Akshayabat tree. The name, however, predates him, with Ilahabas and Ilahabad mentioned on coins minted in the city since Akbar's rule, the latter name became predominant after the emperor's death. It has also been thought to not have been named after Allah but ilaha (the gods). Shaligram Shrivastv claimed in Prayag Pradip that the name was deliberately given by Akbar to be construed as both Hindu ("ilaha") and Muslim ("Allah").[16]

Over the years, a number of attempts were made by BJP-led governments of Uttar Pradesh to rename Allahabad to Prayagraj. In 1992, the planned rename was shelved when the chief minister, Kalyan Singh, was forced to resign following the Babri Masjid demolition. 2001 saw another attempt led by the government of Rajnath Singh which remained unfulfilled.[29] The rename finally succeeded in October 2018 when the Yogi Adityanath-led government officially changed the name of the city to Prayagraj.[30][31]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Allahabad
العربية: الله أباد
বাংলা: এলাহাবাদ
Bân-lâm-gú: Allahabad (siâⁿ)
беларуская: Алахабад
भोजपुरी: इलाहाबाद
български: Аллахабад
brezhoneg: Allahabad
català: Allahabad
čeština: Iláhábád
Cymraeg: Allahabad
dansk: Allahabad
Deutsch: Allahabad
Ελληνικά: Αλλαχαμπάντ
español: Allahabad
Esperanto: Allahabad
euskara: Allahabad
français: Allahabad
Gaeilge: Allahabad
galego: Allahabad
ગુજરાતી: અલ્હાબાદ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Allahabad
한국어: 알라하바드
հայերեն: Իլահաբադ
हिन्दी: इलाहाबाद
hrvatski: Alahabad
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: এলাহাবাদ
Bahasa Indonesia: Allahabad
italiano: Allahabad
עברית: אללהאבאד
Kapampangan: Allahabad
ქართული: ალაჰაბადი
latviešu: Allahābāda
lietuvių: Alahabadas
magyar: Alláhábád
मैथिली: इलाहाबाद
Malagasy: Allahabad
മലയാളം: അലഹബാദ്
მარგალური: ალაჰაბადი
Bahasa Melayu: Allahabad
монгол: Аллахабад
Nederlands: Allahabad (stad)
नेपाली: इलाहाबाद
नेपाल भाषा: अल्लाहबाद
нохчийн: Аллахабад
norsk: Allahabad
norsk nynorsk: Allahabad
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଆଲାହାବାଦ
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਅਲਾਹਾਬਾਦ
پنجابی: الہ آباد
پښتو: اله اباد
polski: Prajagradź
português: Allahabad
română: Allahabad
русский: Аллахабад
संस्कृतम्: प्रयागः
Scots: Allahabad
Simple English: Allahabad
српски / srpski: Алахабад
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Alahabad
suomi: Allahabad
svenska: Allahabad
தமிழ்: அலகாபாத்
తెలుగు: అలహాబాదు
Türkçe: Allahabad
українська: Аллахабад
Tiếng Việt: Allahabad
Winaray: Allahabad