Allahabad

Allahabad
Prayag
Ilahabad
Metropolis
Clockwise from top left: All Saints Cathedral, Khusro Bagh, the Allahabad High Court, the New Yamuna Bridge near Sangam, skyline of Civil Lines, the University of Allahabad, Thornhill Mayne Memorial at Alfred Park and Anand Bhavan.
Nickname(s): The Sangam City,[1] City of Prime Ministers,[2]
, Abode of God[3] (भगवान का घर)
Allahabad is located in Uttar Pradesh
Allahabad
Allahabad
Location of Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh
Allahabad is located in India
Allahabad
Allahabad
Allahabad (India)
Coordinates: 25°27′N 81°51′E / 25°27′N 81°51′E / 25.450; 81.850
Country India
StateUttar Pradesh
DivisionAllahabad
DistrictAllahabad
Government
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • BodyAllahabad Municipal Corporation
 • MayorAbhilasha Gupta (BJP)
 • Divisional CommissionerAshish Kumar Goel, IAS
 • District MagistrateSuhas Ly, IAS
 • Inspector General, Allahabad RangeRamit Sharma, IPS
 • Senior Superintendent of PoliceNitin Tiwari, IPS
Area[4]
 • Metropolis82 km2 (32 sq mi)
Elevation98 m (322 ft)
Population (2011)[5]
 • Metropolis1,117,094
 • Rank38th
 • Density14,000/km2 (35,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[6]1,216,719
 • Metro rank41st
Demonym(s)Allahabadi, Ilahabadi
Languages
 • OfficialHindi, Urdu
 • Additional languagesAwadhi dialect of Hindustani
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN211001-18
Telephone code+91-532
Vehicle registrationUP-70
Sex ratio852 /1000
Websiteallahabad.nic.in

Allahabad (About this sound pronunciation , IAST: Illahabad), also known as Prayag (ɡ/), is a large metropolitan city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the administrative headquarters of Allahabad District, the most populous district in the state and 13th most populous district in India, and the Allahabad Division.

The city is the Judicial capital of Uttar Pradesh with Allahabad High Court being the highest judicial body in the state. As of 2011, Allahabad is the seventh most populous city in the state, twelfth in the Northern India and thirty-eighth in India, with an estimated population of 1.11 million in the city and 1.21 million in its metropolitan region.[7][8] In 2011 it was ranked the world's 40th fastest-growing city.[9][10] Allahabad, in 2016, was also ranked the third most liveable city in the state (after Noida and Lucknow) and sixteenth in the country.[11] The 2016 update of the World Health Organization's Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database found Allahabad to have the third highest mean concentration of "PM2.5" (<2.5 μm diameter) particulate matter in ambient air among all the 2972 cities tested (after Zabol and Gwalior).[12]

The city's original name – Prayag, or "place of offerings" – comes from its position at the Sangam (confluence) of the Ganga, Yamuna and Sarasvati rivers.[1] It plays a central role in Hindu scriptures. Allahabad was originally called Kaushambi (now a separate district) by the Kuru rulers of Hastinapur, who developed it as their capital. Since then, the city has been a political, cultural and administrative centre of the Doab region. In the early 17th century, Allahabad was a provincial capital in the Mughal Empire under the reign of Jahangir.[13]

Akbarnama mentions that the Mughal emperor Akbar founded a great city in Allahabad. `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni and Nizamuddin Ahmad mention that Akbar laid the foundations of an Imperial City there which was called Ilahabas or Ilahabad.[14][15] He was said to be impressed by its strategic location and built a fort there, later renaming it Ilahabas by 1584 which was changed to Allahabad by Shah Jahan.[16]

In 1580, Akbar created the "Subah of Ilahabas" with Allahabad as its capital.[17] mid-1600, Salim had made abortive attempt to seize Agra's treasury and came to Allahabad, seizing its treasury and setting himself up as a virtually independent ruler.[18] He was however reconciled with Akbar and returned to Allahabad where he stayed before returning to the royal court in 1604.[19]

In 1833 it became the seat of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces region before its capital was moved to Agra in 1835.[20][better source needed] Allahabad became the capital of the North-Western Provinces in 1858, and was the capital of India for a day.[21] The city was the capital of the United Provinces from 1902[21] to 1920[22] and remained at the forefront of national importance during the struggle for Indian independence.[23]

Located in southern Uttar Pradesh, the city's metropolitan area covers 70.5 km2 (27.22 sq miles).[24] Although the city and its surrounding area are governed by several municipalities, a large portion of Allahabad District is governed by the Allahabad City Council. The city is home to colleges, research institutions and 2 dozen central and state government offices. Allahabad has hosted cultural and sporting events, including Kumbh Mela and the Indira Marathon. Although the city's economy was built on tourism, most of its income now derives from real estate and financial services.This is 2nd most revenue providing district in Uttar Pradesh.

History

Large fort on a busy river
Allahabad Fort, built by Akbar in 1575
Gandhi seated on a library floor with several other people
Mahatma Gandhi at a January 1940 Congress Working Committee meeting with Vallabhbhai Patel and Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit at Anand Bhavan in Allahabad

Antiquity

The city was earlier known as Prayāga, a name still commonly used. Prayāga existed during the Vedic period, and is mentioned in the Veda as the location where Brahma (the Hindu creator of the universe) attended a ritual sacrifice.[25] Excavations have revealed Northern Black Polished Ware dating to 600–700 BCE.[25] The Puranas record that Yayati left Allahabad and conquered the region of Saptha Sindhu.[26] His five sons (Yadu, Druhyu, Puru, Anu and Turvashu) founded the main tribes of the Rigveda.[27] Lord Rama, the protagonist of the Ramayana, spent time at the Ashram of Sage Bharadwaj before travelling to nearby Chitrakoot.[28]

When people first settled in what they called the Āryāvarta (or Madhyadesha), Allahabad (then Kaushambi) was an important part of their territory.[29] The Kurus, rulers of Hastinapur (near present-day Delhi), established the town of Kaushambi near Allahabad.[30] They shifted their capital to Kaushambi when Hastinapur was destroyed by floods.[29]

The Doab region, which includes Allahabad, was controlled by a succession of empires and dynasties.[31] The area became part of the Maurya and Gupta Empires from the east and the Kushan Empire from the west before being governed by Kannauj during the 15th century.[29] The city was the site of Maratha incursions before India was colonised.[31]

Early medieval period

Xuanzang described Allahabad as a large city between two branches of the river. He adds that there was a large Deva temple and before its hall was a great tree, near which human bones of people who used to commit suicide by jumping from it in belief of going to heaven. Alexander Cunningham believes the tree described by him was the Akshayavat tree and probably still existed at the time of Al-Biruni who called it the "tree of Allahabad", with the practice of jumping from it to commit suicide still continuing by his time. The rest of Allahabad's history up to the Mughal Emperor Akbar isn't much known.[32]

In contrast to the account of Xuanzang, the Muslim historians mention the tree to be located at the confluence of the rivers. The historian Dr. D. B. Dubey states that it appears that between this period, the sandy plain was washed away by the Ganga, to an extent that the temple and tree seen by the Chinese traveller too was washed away, with the river later changing its course to the east and the confluence shifting to the place where Akbar laid the foundations of his fort.[33]

As the majority of the houses would have been mud-walled, a flood could easily destroy them. Cunningham's conclusion in his reports on the Archaeological Survey also supports the assumption, "I infer that during the long period that intervened between the time of Hiuen Tsang and that of Akbar, the two rivers gradually carried away the whole of the sandy plain. Long before this time, the old city had, no doubt, been deserted, for we know that the fort of Allahabad was founded on its site."[34] Dilip Kumar Chakrabarti however disagrees. He states that there is no way modern Allahabad is ancient, but the city site of Jhusi located opposite the confluence was the ancient settlement of Prayag.[35]

Henry Miers Elliot believed that a town existed before Allahabad was founded. He adds that after Mahmud of Ghazni captured Asní near Fatehpur, he couldn't have crossed into Bundelkhand without visiting Allahabad had there been a city worth plundering. He further adds that its capture should have been heard when Muhammad of Ghor captured Benares. However, Ghori's historians never noticed it. Akbarnama mentions that the Mughal emperor Akbar founded a great city in Allahabad. `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni and Nizamuddin Ahmad mention that Akbar laid the foundations of an Imperial City there which he called Ilahabas.[14]

Mughal rule

Abul Fazal states, "For a long time his (Akbar's) desire was to found a great city in the town of Piyag (Allahabad) where the rivers Ganges and Jamuna join... On 13th November 1583 (1st Azar 991 H.) he (Akbar) reached the wished spot and laid the foundations of the city and planned four forts." `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni states that while encamped at Piyag which was commonly called Illahabas, the emperor laid foundation of a great building called Ilahabad. Nizamuddin Ahmad gives two different dates for its foundation. He states that he laid the foundation of the city at a place af the confluence of Ganges and Jumna which was a very sacred site of Hindus. He also mentions about occurrences of 1584, "this time when the news of the disasters in Gujarat was reported, His Majesty deputed Mirza Khan... He (Akbar) founded a great city at Jusi Pyak at the place where the rivers Jamuna and Ganges united with each other and planned a fort around it. He named the city Ilahabas... and spent a period of four months."[36]

Akbar was said to be impressed by its strategic location and built a fort there, later renaming it Ilahabas by 1584 which was changed to Allahabad by Shah Jahan.[16] In 1580, Akbar reorganized his empire into 12 divisions, per Ain-i-Akbari, "to each of which he gave the name Subah and distinguished them by the appelation of the tract of country or its capital city." He combined the provinces of Jaunpur, Kara-Manikpur and territory of Bandhogarh into the "Subah of Ilahabas". He had been worried about the administration of the area particularly after Ali Quli Khan Zaman's rebellion. Allahabad was selected as its capital.[17]

After Prince Salim's failed attempt to seize Agra's treasury, he came to Allahabad and seized its treasury while setting himself up as a virtually independent ruler.[18] In May 1602, he had his name read in Friday prayers and his name minted on coins in Allahabad. After reconciliation with Akbar, Salim returned to Allahabad, where he stayed before returning in 1604.[19] After capturing Jaunpur in 1624, Shah Jahan ordered the siege of Allahabad. The siege was however lifted after Parviz and Mahabat Khan came to assist the garrison.[37] During the Mughal war of succession, the commandant of the fort who had joined Shah Shuja made an agreement with Aurangzeb's officers and surrendered it to Khan Dauran on 12 January 1659.[38]

Nawabs of Awadh

The fort was coveted by the East India Company for the same reasons Akbar built it. British troops were first stationed at Allahabad fort in 1765 as part of the Treaty of Allahabad signed by Lord Robert Clive, Mughal emperor Shah Alam II, and Awadh's Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula.[39] The combined forces of Bengal's Nawab Mir Qasim, Shuja and Shah Alam were defeated by the English at Buxar in October 1764 and at Kora in May 1765. Alam who was abandoned by Shuja after the defeats, surrendered to the English and was lodged at the fort, as they captured Allahabad, Benares and Chunar in his name. The territories of Allahabad and Kora were given to the emperor after the treaty was signed in 1765. He spent six years there and after the takeover of Delhi by the Marathas, left for his capital in 1771.[40]

Upon realizing the Maratha intent of territorial encroachment however, Shah Alam ordered his general Najaf Khan to drive them out. Tukoji Rao Holkar and Visaji Krushna Biniwale in return attacked Delhi and defeated his forces in 1772. The Marathas were granted an imperial sanad for Kora and Allahabad. They turned their attention to Oudh to gain these two territories. Shuja was however unwilling to give them up and made appeals to the English and the Marathas did not fare well at the battle of Ramghat.[41] In August and September 1773, Warren Hastings met Shuja and concluded a treaty, under which Kora and Allahabad were ceded to the Nawab for a payment of 50 lakh rupees.[42]

Saadat Ali Khan II after being made the Nawab by John Shore, entered into a treaty with the Company and gave the fort to the British in 1798.[43] Lord Wellesley after threatening to annexing the entire Awadh, concluded a treaty with Saadat on abolishing the independent Awadhi army, imposing a larger subsidiary force and annexing Rohilkhand, Gorakhpur and the Doab in 1801.[44]

British rule

Acquired in 1801, Allahabad asides from its importance as a pilgrimage center, was a stepping stone to the agrarian track upcountry and the Grand Trunk Road. It also potentially offered sizeable revenues to the Company. Initial revenue settlements began in 1803.[45] Allahabad was a participant in the 1857 Indian Mutiny,[46] when Maulvi Liaquat Ali unfurled the banner of revolt.[47] During the rebellion Allahabad, with a number of European troops,[48] was the scene of a massacre.[13]

After the mutiny, the British established a high court, a police headquarters and a public-service commission in Allahabad,[49] making the city an administrative centre.[50] They truncated the Delhi region of the state, merging it with the Punjab and moving the capital of the North-Western Provinces to Allahabad (where it remained for 20 years).[22] In January 1858, Earl Canning departed Calcutta for Allahabad.[51] That year he read Queen Victoria's proclamation, transferring control of India from the East India Company to the British Crown (beginning the British Raj), in Minto Park.[52][53] In 1877 the provinces of Agra and Awadh were merged to form the United Provinces,[54] with Allahabad its capital until 1920.[22]

The 1888 session of the Indian National Congress was held in the city,[55] and by the turn of the 20th century Allahabad was a revolutionary centre.[56] Nityanand Chatterji became a household name when he hurled a bomb at a European club.[57] In Alfred Park in 1931, Chandrashekhar Azad died when surrounded by British police.[58] The Nehru family homes, Anand Bhavan and Swaraj Bhavan, were centres of Indian National Congress activity.[59] During the years before independence Allahabad was home to thousands of satyagrahis led by Purushottam Das Tandon, Bishambhar Nath Pande, Narayan Dutt Tiwari and others.[23] The first seeds of the Pakistani nation were sown in Allahabad.[60] On 29 December 1930, Allama Muhammad Iqbal's presidential address to the All-India Muslim League proposed a separate Muslim state for the Muslim-majority regions of India.[61]

Post-independence

Allahabad is known as the City of Prime Ministers because seven out of 15 prime ministers of India since independence have connections to Allahabad (Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, Gulzarilal Nanda, Vishwanath Pratap Singh and Chandra Shekhar). All seven leaders were either born in Allahabad, were alumni of Allahabad University or were elected from an Allahabad constituency.[2]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Allahabad
العربية: الله أباد
বাংলা: এলাহাবাদ
Bân-lâm-gú: Allahabad (siâⁿ)
беларуская: Алахабад
भोजपुरी: इलाहाबाद
български: Аллахабад
brezhoneg: Allahabad
català: Allahabad
čeština: Iláhábád
Cymraeg: Allahabad
dansk: Allahabad
Deutsch: Allahabad
Ελληνικά: Αλλαχαμπάντ
español: Allahabad
Esperanto: Allahabad
euskara: Allahabad
français: Allahabad
galego: Allahabad
ગુજરાતી: અલ્હાબાદ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Allahabad
한국어: 알라하바드
հայերեն: Իլահաբադ
हिन्दी: इलाहाबाद
hrvatski: Alahabad
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: এলাহাবাদ
Bahasa Indonesia: Allahabad
italiano: Allahabad
עברית: אללהאבאד
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಅಲಹಾಬಾದ್
Kapampangan: Allahabad
ქართული: ალაჰაბადი
latviešu: Allahābāda
lietuvių: Alahabadas
magyar: Alláhábád
मैथिली: इलाहाबाद
Malagasy: Allahabad
മലയാളം: അലഹബാദ്
मराठी: अलाहाबाद
მარგალური: ალაჰაბადი
Bahasa Melayu: Allahabad
монгол: Аллахабад
Nederlands: Allahabad (stad)
नेपाली: इलाहाबाद
नेपाल भाषा: अल्लाहबाद
нохчийн: Аллахабад
norsk: Allahabad
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଆଲାହାବାଦ
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਅਲਾਹਾਬਾਦ
پنجابی: الہ آباد
پښتو: اله اباد
polski: Allahabad
português: Allahabad
română: Allahabad
русский: Аллахабад
संस्कृतम्: प्रयागः
Scots: Allahabad
Simple English: Allahabad
српски / srpski: Алахабад
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Alahabad
suomi: Allahabad
svenska: Allahabad
தமிழ்: அலகாபாத்
తెలుగు: అలహాబాదు
Türkçe: Allahabad
українська: Аллахабад
Tiếng Việt: Allahabad
Winaray: Allahabad