All-Palestine Protectorate

All-Palestine Protectorate
حكومة عموم فلسطين
1948–1959
Flag of Palestine
Gaza Strip after 1950 Armistice.
Gaza Strip after the 1950 Armistice.
StatusPartial recognition
Client state of the Kingdom of Egypt and later Republic of Egypt
CapitalJerusalem (claimed)
Gaza City (de facto 1948)
Cairo (de facto 1949-59)
Common languagesPalestinian Arabic
Religion Sunni Islam, Christianity
GovernmentRepublic
President 
• 1948
Hajj Amin al-Husseini
Prime Minister 
• 1948
Ahmed Hilmi Pasha
Historical eraCold War
• Established
22 September 1948
1949
• Arab League places Gaza Strip under official aegis of Egypt[1]
1952
• Government dissolved (except Prime Minister's post)[2]
1953
1956–1957
• Disestablished
1959
CurrencyEgyptian pound
ISO 3166 codePS
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mandatory Palestine
Occupation of the Gaza Strip by Egypt
Today part of Gaza Strip

The All-Palestine Protectorate, or simply All-Palestine, also known as Gaza Protectorate and Gaza Strip, was a short-living client state with limited recognition, corresponding to the area of the modern Gaza Strip, which was established in area captured by the Kingdom of Egypt during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and allowed to run as a protectorate under the All-Palestine Government. The Protectorate was declared on 22 September 1948 in Gaza City, and the All-Palestine Government was formed. The Prime Minister of the Gaza-seated administration was Ahmed Hilmi Pasha and the President was Hajj Amin al-Husseini, former chairman of the Arab Higher Committee.[3] In December 1948, just three months after the declaration, the All-Palestine Government was relocated to Cairo and was never allowed to return to Gaza, making it a government in exile. With further resolution of the Arab League to put the Gaza Strip under the official protectorate of Egypt in 1952, the All-Palestine Government was gradually stripped of authority. In 1953, the government was nominally dissolved, though the Palestinian Prime Minister Hilmi continued to attend Arab League meetings on its behalf.[2] In 1959, the protectorate was de-jure merged into the United Arab Republic, while de facto turning Gaza into military occupation area of Egypt.

There are differences of opinion as to whether the All-Palestine Protectorate was a mere puppet or façade of the Egyptian occupation, with negligible independent funding or influence, or whether it was a genuine attempt to establish an independent Palestinian state. Though the All-Palestine Government claimed jurisdiction over the whole former British Mandate of Palestine at no time did its effective jurisdiction extend beyond the Gaza Strip, with the West Bank annexed by Transjordan and Israel holding the rest. The All-Palestine Protectorate relied entirely on the Egyptian government for funding and on UNRWA to relieve the plight of the Palestinian refugees in the Gaza Strip. In reality, during most of its existence the All-Palestine Protectorate was under de facto Egyptian administration, though Egypt never made any claim to or annexed any Palestinian territory. Egypt did not offer the Gazan Palestinians citizenship. Palestinians living in the Gaza Strip and Egypt were issued All-Palestine passports, and were not permitted to move freely into Egypt. However, these passports were only recognized by six Arab countries.

History

The protectorate was established in the Gaza enclave area captured by the Kingdom of Egypt during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. All-Palestine was declared on 22 September 1948 in Gaza City, and the All-Palestine Government was formed. The Prime Minister of the Gaza-seated administration was Ahmed Hilmi Pasha and the President was Hajj Amin al-Husseini, former chairman of the Arab Higher Committee.[3] In December 1948, just three months after the declaration, the All-Palestine Government was relocated to Cairo and was never allowed to return to Gaza, making it a government in exile. With further resolution of the Arab League to put the Gaza Strip under the official protectorate of Egypt in 1952, the All-Palestine Government was gradually stripped of authority. In 1953, the government was nominally dissolved, though the Palestinian Prime Minister Hilmi continued to attend Arab League meetings on its behalf.[2] In 1959, the protectorate was de-jure merged into the United Arab Republic, while de facto turning Gaza into military occupation area of Egypt.

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