Alcohol

Ball-and-stick model of an alcohol molecule (R3COH). The red and grey balls represent the hydroxyl group (-OH). The three "R's" stand for carbon substituents or hydrogen atoms.[1]
The bond angle between an hydroxyl group (-OH) and a chain of carbon atoms (R)

In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.[2] The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic beverages. An important class of alcohols, of which methanol and ethanol are the simplest members, includes all compounds for which the general formula is CnH2n+1OH. It is these simple monoalcohols that are the subject of this article.

The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority. When a higher priority group is present in the compound, the prefix hydroxy- is used in its IUPAC name. The suffix -ol in non-IUPAC names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance is an alcohol. However, many substances that contain hydroxyl functional groups (particularly sugars, such as glucose and sucrose) have names which include neither the suffix -ol, nor the prefix hydroxy-.

History

Alcohol distillation was known to Islamic chemists as early as the eighth century.[3][4]

The Arab chemist, al-Kindi, unambiguously described the distillation of wine in a treatise titled as "The Book of the chemistry of Perfume and Distillations".[5][6][7]

The Persian physician, alchemist, polymath and philosopher Rhazes (854 CE – 925 CE)[8] is credited with the discovery of ethanol.[9][10]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Alkohol
Alemannisch: Alkohole
العربية: كحول
aragonés: Alcohol
armãneashti: Alcoolu
অসমীয়া: এলক'হল
asturianu: Alcohol
azərbaycanca: Spirtlər
تۆرکجه: الکول
Bân-lâm-gú: Alcohol
башҡортса: Спирт
беларуская: Спірты
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сьпірт
български: Алкохол
bosanski: Alkohol
brezhoneg: Alkool
català: Alcohol
čeština: Alkoholy
Cymraeg: Alcohol
Deutsch: Alkohole
eesti: Alkoholid
Ελληνικά: Αλκοόλες
español: Alcohol
Esperanto: Alkoholo
euskara: Alkohol
فارسی: الکل
Fiji Hindi: Alcohol
føroyskt: Alkohol
français: Alcool (chimie)
Gaeilge: Alcóil
Gaelg: Alcoal
Gàidhlig: Alcol
galego: Alcohol
ગુજરાતી: આલ્કોહોલ
한국어: 알코올
հայերեն: Սպիրտ
हिन्दी: अल्कोहल
hrvatski: Alkoholi
Ilokano: Alkohol
Bahasa Indonesia: Alkohol
interlingua: Alcohol
íslenska: Alkóhól
italiano: Alcoli
עברית: כוהל
Basa Jawa: Alkohol
Kabɩyɛ: Alɩkɔɔlɩ
ქართული: სპირტი
қазақша: Алкогольдер
Kiswahili: Alkoholi
Kreyòl ayisyen: Alkòl
kurdî: Alkol
Кыргызча: Спирт
Ladino: Alkól
Latina: Alcohol
latviešu: Spirti
Lëtzebuergesch: Alkoholen
lietuvių: Alkoholis
Ligure: Alcooli
Limburgs: Alcohol
lingála: Lotoko
lumbaart: Alcol
magyar: Alkoholok
македонски: Алкохол
Bahasa Melayu: Alkohol
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အယ်လ်ကိုဟော
नेपाली: अल्कोहल
日本語: アルコール
Nordfriisk: Alkohol
norsk: Alkoholer
norsk nynorsk: Alkohol
occitan: Alcòl
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Spirtlar
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਅਲਕੋਹਲ
پنجابی: الکحل
Patois: Alkoal
Plattdüütsch: Alkohol
polski: Alkohole
português: Álcool
Ripoarisch: Alkohol
română: Alcool
Runa Simi: Alkul
русиньскый: Алкоголы
русский: Спирты
Scots: Alcohol
shqip: Alkooli
sicilianu: Alcool
Simple English: Alcohol
slovenščina: Alkohol
کوردی: ئەلکھول
српски / srpski: Алкохол
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Alkoholi
Basa Sunda: Alkohol
suomi: Alkoholit
svenska: Alkoholer
Tagalog: Alkohol
தமிழ்: மதுசாரம்
татарча/tatarça: Спиртлар
తెలుగు: ఆల్కహాలు
Türkçe: Alkol
українська: Спирти
اردو: الکحل
Tiếng Việt: Ancol
文言:
West-Vlams: Alcool
Winaray: Arkohol
吴语:
ייִדיש: אלקאהאל
Yorùbá: Ọtí
粵語: 酒精
žemaitėška: Alkuoguolis
中文: