Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani

Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani by Fars 02.jpg
4th President of Iran
In office
16 August 1989[1] – 3 August 1997
Supreme LeaderAli Khamenei
First Vice PresidentHassan Habibi
Preceded byAli Khamenei
Succeeded byMohammad Khatami
Chairman of Expediency Discernment Council
In office
4 October 1989 – 8 January 2017
Appointed byAli Khamenei
Preceded byAli Khamenei
Succeeded byMahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi
Chairman of the Assembly of Experts
In office
25 July 2007 – 8 March 2011
Supreme LeaderAli Khamenei
Preceded byAli Meshkini
Succeeded byMohammad-Reza Mahdavi Kani
18th Speaker of the Parliament of Iran
In office
28 July 1980 – 3 August 1989
First Deputy
Preceded byJavad Saeed
Succeeded byMehdi Karroubi
Member of the Assembly of Experts
In office
15 August 1983 – 8 January 2017
ConstituencyTehran Province
Majority2,301,492 (5th term)
Tehran's Friday Prayer Temporary Imam
In office
3 July 1981 – 17 July 2009
Appointed byRuhollah Khomeini
Member of the Parliament of Iran
In office
28 May 1980 – 3 August 1989
ConstituencyTehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr
Majority1,891,264 (81.9%; 2nd term)
Minister of Interior
In office
6 November 1979 – 27 February 1980
Appointed byIslamic Revolution Council
Preceded byHashem Sabbaghian
Succeeded byMohammad-Reza Mahdavi Kani
Personal details
Akbar Hashemi Bahramani

(1934-08-25)25 August 1934
Bahreman, Persia
Died8 January 2017(2017-01-08) (aged 82)
Tajrish, Shemiran, Iran
Resting placeMausoleum of Ruhollah Khomeini
Political partyCombatant Clergy Association
Other political
Islamic Republican Party (1979–1987)
Spouse(s)Effat Marashi (1958–2017, his death)[2]
SignatureOfficial website
Military service
Allegiance Iran
CommandsSecond-in-Command of Iran's Joint Chiefs of Staff
Battles/warsIran–Iraq War
AwardsFath Medal 1st Order.jpg Order of Fath (1st grade)[3]

Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی‎, translit. Akbar Hāshemī Rafsanjānī About this soundpronunciation  or Hashemi Bahramani, often mistakenly known as Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani [4]; 25 August 1934 – 8 January 2017) was an influential Iranian politician, writer and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth President of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997. He was the head of the Assembly of Experts from 2007 until 2011, when he decided not to nominate himself for the post.[5][6] He was also the chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council.

During the final years of the Iran–Iraq War, Rafsanjani was the de facto commander-in-chief of the Iranian military. He was elected chairman of the Iranian parliament in 1980, serving until 1989. He played an important role in the choice of Ali Khamenei as Supreme Leader.[7]

Rafsanjani became president of Iran after winning the 1989 election. He served another term by winning the election in 1993. In the 2005 election he ran for a third term in office, placing first in the first round of elections but ultimately losing to rival Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in the run-off. He and his family faced political isolation for their support of the opposition in 2009. Rafsanjani entered the race for the 2013 presidential election,[8] but he was disqualified by the Guardian Council. With Hassan Rouhani's election, in which Rafsanjani openly supported him, the Rafsanjani family gradually recovered their political reputation. Rafsanjani died following a heart attack on 8 January 2017 in a hospital in Tehran at the age of 82.[9][10][11]

Rafsanjani has been described as having been a pragmatic Islamic conservative. The Economist called him a "veteran kingmaker".[12] He supported a free market position domestically, favoring privatization of state-owned industries and a moderate position internationally, seeking to avoid conflict with the United States and the West.[13] He was also founder and one of the Board of Trustees of Azad University. In 2003, Forbes estimated his personal wealth to be in excess of USD$1 billion.[14]

Early life and education

Rafsanjani was born on 25 August 1934 in the village of Bahreman near the city of Rafsanjan in Kerman Province, to a wealthy family of pistachio farmers.[15][16] He had seven siblings.[17] His father, Mirza Ali Hashemi Behramani, was one of Kerman's famous businessmen and a Pistachio merchant. His mother, Hajie Khanom Mahbibi Hashemi, died at the age of 90 on 21 December 1995.[18] One of his brothers, Mohammad Hashemi is the former director of IRIB.[19] Rafsanjani did not see himself as a peasant from childhood, according to family members.

He left at the age of 14 to study theology in Qom. There he became acquainted with the ideas of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the most senior dissident cleric who later became the founder of the Islamic Republic, on the political rule of the clergy. He studied theology.[20] His other teachers were Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi, Mohammad-Reza Golpaygani, Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari, Abdul-Karim Ha'eri Yazdi, Shahab al-Din Mar'ashi Najafi, Nematollah Salehi Najafabadi, Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i, and Hussein-Ali Montazeri.[21]

Other Languages
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Алі Акбар Хашэмі Рафсанджані
Bahasa Indonesia: Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Ali Akbar Rafsanjoniy
Simple English: Hashemi Rafsanjani
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Akbar Hašemi Rafsandžani
Tiếng Việt: Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani