Agustín de Iturbide

Agustín I
Agustin de Iturbide Oleo Primitivo Miranda.png
Portrait as Emperor of Mexico by Primitivo Miranda, 1860
Emperor of Mexico
Reign19 May 1822 – 19 March 1823 . . .
Coronation21 July 1822
PredecessorMonarchy established
SuccessorProvisional Government (Chronologically)
Maximilian I of Mexico
(as Emperor)
President of the Regency of Mexico
Reign28 September 1821 – 18 May 1822
PredecessorMonarchy established
SuccessorJuan Nepomuceno Almonte
Born(1783-09-27)27 September 1783
Valladolid, Michoacán
Died19 July 1824(1824-07-19) (aged 40)
Padilla, Tamaulipas
SpouseAna María Josefa Ramona de Huarte y Muñiz
IssueAgustín Jerónimo, Prince Imperial
Princess Sabina
Princess Juana
Princess Josefa
Prince Ángel
Princess María
Princess Dolores
Prince Salvador
Prince Felipe
Prince Agustín Cosme
Full name
Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu
HouseHouse of Iturbide
FatherJosé Joaquín de Iturbide y Arreguí
MotherMaría Josefa de Arámburu y Carrillo de Figueroa
ReligionRoman Catholicism
SignatureAgustín I's signature

Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu (Spanish pronunciation: [aɣusˈtin ðe ituɾˈβiðe]; 27 September 1783 – 19 July 1824), also known as Augustine of Mexico, was a Mexican army general and politician. During the Mexican War of Independence, he built a successful political and military coalition that took control in Mexico City on 27 September 1821, decisively gaining independence for Mexico. After the secession of Mexico was secured, he was proclaimed President of the Regency in 1821. A year later, he was announced as the Constitutional Emperor of Mexico, reigning briefly from 19 May 1822 to 19 March 1823. He is credited as the original designer of the first Mexican flag.[1][2][3]

Although Iturbide's reign was short, it defined the political struggles before and after independence. The two ends of Mexico's political spectrum, liberals who favored populist representative government and conservatives who favored a more authoritarian regime[citation needed], each gained the upper hand at various times in the decades after Iturbide's abdication.[citation needed]

Life before the war of independence

Agustín Cosme Damian de Iturbide y Arámburu was born in what was called Valladolid, now Morelia, the state capital of Michoacán, on 27 September 1783.[4][5] He was baptized with the names of Saints Cosmas and Damian at the cathedral.[6] The fifth child born to his parents, he was the only male to survive and eventually became head of the family.[7] Iturbide's parents were part of the privileged class of Valladolid, owning farmland[4][5] including the haciendas of Apeo and Guaracha as well as lands in nearby Quirio.[6] Iturbide's father, Joaquín de Iturbide, came from a family of the Basque gentry who were confirmed in nobility by King Juan II of Aragon. One of his ancestors, Martín de Iturbide, was designated as Royal Merino in the High Valley of Baztan in the 1430s, and thereafter many in the family held political or administrative positions in the Basque Country from the 15th century. As a younger son, Joaquín was not in line to inherit the family lands, so he migrated to New Spain to make his fortune there.[7] While the aristocratic and Spanish lineage of Agustin's father was not in doubt, his mother's ancestry was less clear.

His mother was of pure Spanish blood born in Mexico, and therefore, Julia a criolla.[6][7] Some sources state she came from a high-ranking family in Michoacán.[4][5][8] In the Spanish colonial era, racial caste was important to advancement, including military rank, and having some indigenous ancestry was often a disadvantage.[9] Iturbide insisted throughout his life that he was criollo (native born of Spanish descent).[10][11]

Agustín studied at the Catholic seminary called Colegio de San Nicolás in Valladolid, enrolled in the program for secular officials, though he was not a distinguished student.[1][4][7] After that, he worked as an overseer at one of his family's haciendas for a short time, discovering he was a very good horseman.[1][4]

In his teens, Iturbide entered the royalist army, having been accepted as a criollo.[11] He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the provincial regiment.[4][5] In 1806, he was promoted to full lieutenant.[7]

Other Languages
Bahasa Indonesia: Agustín de Iturbide
lietuvių: Augustinas I
Bahasa Melayu: Agustín de Iturbide
polski: Augustyn I
slovenščina: Augustin de Itúrbide
Tiếng Việt: Agustín de Iturbide