Afghanistan

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

  • جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان (Dari)
  • Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Afġānestān
  • د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت (Pashto)
  • Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jumhoryat
Motto: لا إله إلا الله، محمد رسول الله
"Lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh, Muhammadun rasūlu llāh"
"There is no God but Allah; Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. (Shahada)
Anthem: Millī Surūd
ملي سرود
(English: "National Anthem")
Location of Afghanistan
Capital
and largest city
Kabul
34°32′N 69°08′E / 34°32′N 69°08′E / 34.533; 69.133
Official languages
Ethnic groups
Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, and others[2]
Religion
Islam
Demonym(s)Afghan[3]
Afghani[4]
Afghanistani[5]
GovernmentUnitary presidential Islamic republic
• President
Ashraf Ghani
Abdul Rashid Dostum
Sarwar Danish
Abdullah Abdullah
LegislatureNational Assembly
House of Elders
House of the People
Formation
21 April 1709
October 1747
• Emirate
1823
19 August 1919
• Kingdom
9 June 1926
• Republic
17 July 1973
26 January 2004
Area
• Total
652,230[6] km2 (251,830 sq mi) (40th)
• Water (%)
negligible
Population
• 2018 estimate
31,575,018 (45th)
• Density
46/km2 (119.1/sq mi) (174th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$72.911 billion[7] (96th)
• Per capita
$2,024[7] (169th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$21.657 billion[7] (111st)
• Per capita
$601[7] (177th)
Gini (2008)Positive decrease 27.8[8]
low · 1st
HDI (2018)Increase 0.498[9]
low · 168th
CurrencyAfghani (Afs) (AFN)
Time zoneUTC+4:30 Solar Calendar (D†)
Driving sideright
Calling code+93
ISO 3166 codeAF
Internet TLD.af افغانستان.

Afghanistan (n/ (About this soundlisten); Pashto/Dari: افغانستان‬, Pashto: Afġānistān [avɣɒnisˈtɒn, ab-],[10] Dari: Afġānestān [avɣɒnesˈtɒn]), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South-Central Asia.[11][12][13] Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and in the far northeast, China. Its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers (252,000 sq mi) and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experience very cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, whilst the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get very hot in summers.[14] Kabul serves as the capital and its largest city.

Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, and the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia. The land has historically been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Mauryas, Muslim Arabs, Mongols, British, Soviets, and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable"[15][16] and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires".[17] The land also served as the source from which the Kushans, Hephthalites, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khaljis, Mughals, Hotaks, Durranis, and others have risen to form major empires.[18]

The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire. Its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence, eventually becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, until almost 50 years later when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and then a Soviet Union protectorate. This evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for over five years. The Taliban were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, and a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed.

Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with a population of 31 million, mostly composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras and Uzbeks. It is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, and the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion; the country fares much worse in terms of per-capita GDP (PPP), ranking 167th out of 186 countries in a 2016 report from the International Monetary Fund.[19]

Etymology

The name Afghānistān (Pashto: افغانستان‎) is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, which is documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam. The root name "Afghan" was used historically in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, and the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more specifically in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "[t]he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."[20]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Афганистэн
адыгабзэ: Афганистан
Afrikaans: Afghanistan
Alemannisch: Afghanistan
አማርኛ: አፍጋኒስታን
Ænglisc: Afghanistan
العربية: أفغانستان
aragonés: Afganistán
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܦܓܐܢܣܛܐܢ
arpetan: Afganistan
অসমীয়া: আফগানিস্তান
asturianu: Afganistán
Avañe'ẽ: Ahyganitã
azərbaycanca: Əfqanıstan
تۆرکجه: افغانیستان
Bân-lâm-gú: Afghanistan
башҡортса: Афғанстан
беларуская: Афганістан
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Аўганістан
Bikol Central: Apganistan
български: Афганистан
Boarisch: Afghanistan
bosanski: Afganistan
brezhoneg: Afghanistan
буряад: Афганистан
català: Afganistan
Чӑвашла: Афганистан
Cebuano: Apganistan
čeština: Afghánistán
Chamoru: Afghanistan
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Afghanistan
chiShona: Afghanistan
chiTumbuka: Afghanistan
Cymraeg: Affganistan
davvisámegiella: Afganistan
Deitsch: Afganischtaan
Deutsch: Afghanistan
ދިވެހިބަސް: އަފްޣާނިސްތާން
dolnoserbski: Afghanistan
eesti: Afganistan
Ελληνικά: Αφγανιστάν
español: Afganistán
Esperanto: Afganio
estremeñu: Afganistán
euskara: Afganistan
فارسی: افغانستان
Fiji Hindi: Afghanistan
føroyskt: Afghanistan
français: Afghanistan
Frysk: Afganistan
furlan: Afghanistan
Gagauz: Afganistan
Gàidhlig: Afganastan
galego: Afganistán
ГӀалгӀай: Афганистане
Gĩkũyũ: Afghanistan
ગુજરાતી: અફઘાનિસ્તાન
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: अफगाणिस्तान
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Afghanistan
Hawaiʻi: ‘Apekanikana
հայերեն: Աֆղանստան
hornjoserbsce: Afghanistan
hrvatski: Afganistan
Bahasa Hulontalo: Apganistan
Ilokano: Apganistan
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: আফগানিস্তান
Bahasa Indonesia: Afganistan
interlingua: Afghanistan
Interlingue: Afghanistan
isiZulu: I-Afganistani
íslenska: Afganistan
italiano: Afghanistan
עברית: אפגניסטן
Basa Jawa: Afghanistan
Kabɩyɛ: Afganistani
kalaallisut: Afghanistan
Kapampangan: Afganistan
къарачай-малкъар: Афганистан
ქართული: ავღანეთი
kaszëbsczi: Afganistón
қазақша: Ауғанстан
kernowek: Afghanistan
Kinyarwanda: Afuganisitani
Kiswahili: Afghanistan
Kreyòl ayisyen: Afganistan
kurdî: Efxanistan
Кыргызча: Ооганстан
Ladino: Afganistan
لۊری شومالی: ٱفغانستان
Latina: Afgania
latviešu: Afganistāna
Lëtzebuergesch: Afghanistan
lietuvių: Afganistanas
Ligure: Afghanistan
Limburgs: Afghanistan
lingála: Afganistáni
Lingua Franca Nova: Afganistan
Livvinkarjala: Afganistuanu
la .lojban.: afyganisTAN
lumbaart: Afghanistan
magyar: Afganisztán
македонски: Авганистан
Malagasy: Afganistana
Malti: Afganistan
მარგალური: ავღანეთი
مازِرونی: افغانستان
Bahasa Melayu: Afghanistan
Baso Minangkabau: Afganistan
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Afghanistan
Mirandés: Afeganistan
мокшень: Афганистан
монгол: Афганистан
Nāhuatl: Afganistan
Dorerin Naoero: Apeganitan
Nederlands: Afghanistan
Nedersaksies: Afghanistan
नेपाल भाषा: अफगानिस्तान
нохчийн: ОвхӀан
Nordfriisk: Afghanistan
Norfuk / Pitkern: Afganistaan
norsk nynorsk: Afghanistan
Novial: Afganistan
occitan: Afganistan
олык марий: Афганистан
Oromoo: Afgaanistaan
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Afgʻoniston
Pangasinan: Afghanistan
پنجابی: افغانستان
Papiamentu: Afganistán
Patois: Afganistan
Piemontèis: Afgànistan
Tok Pisin: Afghanistan
Plattdüütsch: Afghanistan
polski: Afganistan
português: Afeganistão
Qaraqalpaqsha: Afg'anstan
qırımtatarca: Afğanistan
Ripoarisch: Afghanistan
română: Afganistan
rumantsch: Afganistan
Runa Simi: Afgansuyu
русиньскый: Афґаністан
русский: Афганистан
саха тыла: Афганистаан
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱟᱯᱷᱜᱟᱱᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ
Gagana Samoa: Afakanisitana
संस्कृतम्: अफगानिस्थानम्
Seeltersk: Afghanistan
sicilianu: Afganistàn
Simple English: Afghanistan
SiSwati: I-Afugani
slovenčina: Afganistan
slovenščina: Afganistan
ślůnski: Afganistan
Soomaaliga: Afgaanistan
српски / srpski: Авганистан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Afganistan
Basa Sunda: Apganistan
suomi: Afganistan
svenska: Afghanistan
Tagalog: Afghanistan
Taqbaylit: Afɣanistan
tarandíne: Afghanistan
татарча/tatarça: Әфганстан
тоҷикӣ: Афғонистон
lea faka-Tonga: ʻAfikānisitani
Tsetsêhestâhese: Afghanistan
Türkçe: Afganistan
Türkmençe: Owganystan
удмурт: Афганистан
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Afghanistan
українська: Афганістан
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئافغانىستان
Vahcuengh: Afghanistan
vèneto: Afganistan
vepsän kel’: Afganistan
Tiếng Việt: Afghanistan
Volapük: Lafganistän
Võro: Afganistan
文言: 阿富汗
West-Vlams: Afghanistan
Winaray: Afganistan
吴语: 阿富汗
Xitsonga: Afghanistan
ייִדיש: אפגאניסטאן
Yorùbá: Afghanístàn
粵語: 阿富汗
Zazaki: Efğanıstan
Zeêuws: Afghanistan
žemaitėška: Afganėstans
中文: 阿富汗