Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler
Hitler portrait crop.jpg
(1938)
Führer of Germany
In office
2 August 1934 – 30 April 1945
Preceded byPaul von Hindenburg
(as President of the German Reich)
Succeeded byKarl Dönitz
(as President)
Chancellor of Germany
In office
30 January 1933 – 30 April 1945
President
Deputy
Preceded byKurt von Schleicher
Succeeded byJoseph Goebbels
Führer of the Nazi Party
In office
29 June 1921 – 30 April 1945
DeputyRudolf Hess
(1933–1941)
Preceded byAnton Drexler
(as Chairman)
Succeeded byMartin Bormann
(as Party Minister)
Personal details
Born(1889-04-20)20 April 1889
Braunau am Inn, Austria-Hungary
Died30 April 1945(1945-04-30) (aged 56)
Berlin, Nazi Germany
Cause of deathSuicide by gunshot
Citizenship
  • Austria (1889–1925)
  • Germany (1932–1945)
Political partyNational Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi Party) (1921–1945)
Other political
affiliations
German Workers' Party (1920–1921)
Spouse(s)
Eva Braun
(m. 1945; died 1945)
Parents
RelativesHitler family
ProfessionPolitician
Signature
Military service
Allegiance German Empire
Service/branchKaiserstandarte.svg Imperial German Army
Years of service1914–1920
Rank
Unit
  • 16th Bavarian Reserve Regiment
  • Reichswehr intelligence
Battles/warsWorld War I
Awards

Adolf Hitler (German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ] (About this soundlisten); 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue,[1] and Pan-German revolutionary.[2][a][4] He was leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), and rose to power in Germany as Chancellor in 1933 and Führer ("Leader") in 1934.[b] During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland in September 1939. He closely supervised military operations during the war and by December 1941 had full control of all strategic decisions, especially on the Eastern Front. He was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust.

Hitler was born in Austria—then part of Austria-Hungary—and was raised near Linz. He moved to Germany in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I. In 1919, he joined the German Workers' Party (DAP), the precursor of the NSDAP, and was appointed leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he attempted to seize power in a failed coup in Munich and was imprisoned. In jail, he dictated the first volume of his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf ("My Struggle"). After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-semitism and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda. He frequently denounced international capitalism and communism as part of a Jewish conspiracy.

By July 1932 the Nazi Party was the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, but did not have a majority, and no party was able to form a majority parliamentary coalition in support of a candidate for chancellor. Former chancellor Franz von Papen and other conservative leaders persuaded President Paul von Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933. Shortly after, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act of 1933, which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany, a one-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France. His first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the abrogation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, and the annexation of territories inhabited by millions of ethnic Germans, which gave him significant popular support.

Hitler sought Lebensraum ("living space") for the German people in Eastern Europe, and his aggressive foreign policy is considered the primary cause of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and, on 1 September 1939, invaded Poland, resulting in Britain and France declaring war on Germany. In June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941, German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe and North Africa. In December 1941, he declared war on the United States, bringing them directly into the conflict. Failure to defeat the Soviets and the entry of the United States into the war forced Germany onto the defensive and it suffered a series of escalating defeats. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, he married his longtime lover Eva Braun. Less than two days later, on 30 April 1945, the two committed suicide to avoid capture by the Soviet Red Army; their corpses were burned.

Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology, the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims whom he and his followers deemed Untermenschen (subhumans) or socially undesirable. Hitler and the Nazi regime were also responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 28.7 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European theatre. The number of civilians killed during World War II was unprecedented in warfare, and the casualties constitute the deadliest conflict in history.

Ancestry

Hitler's father Alois Hitler Sr. (1837–1903) was the illegitimate child of Maria Anna Schicklgruber.[7] The baptismal register did not show the name of his father, and Alois initially bore his mother's surname Schicklgruber. In 1842, Johann Georg Hiedler married Alois's mother Maria Anna. Alois was brought up in the family of Hiedler's brother, Johann Nepomuk Hiedler.[8] In 1876, Alois was legitimated and the baptismal register changed by a priest to register Johann Georg Hiedler as Alois's father (recorded as "Georg Hitler").[9][10] Alois then assumed the surname "Hitler",[10] also spelled Hiedler, Hüttler, or Huettler. The name is probably based on "one who lives in a hut" (German Hütte for "hut").[11]

Nazi official Hans Frank suggested that Alois's mother had been employed as a housekeeper by a Jewish family in Graz, and that the family's 19-year-old son Leopold Frankenberger had fathered Alois.[12] No Frankenberger was registered in Graz during that period, and no record has been produced of Leopold Frankenberger's existence,[13] so historians dismiss the claim that Alois's father was Jewish.[14][15]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Адолф Гитлер
Afrikaans: Adolf Hitler
Alemannisch: Adolf Hitler
Ænglisc: Adolf Hitler
العربية: أدولف هتلر
aragonés: Adolf Hitler
armãneashti: Adolf Hitler
অসমীয়া: এডল্ফ হিটলাৰ
asturianu: Adolf Hitler
Avañe'ẽ: Adolf Hitler
azərbaycanca: Adolf Hitler
تۆرکجه: آدولف هیتلر
Bahasa Banjar: Adolf Hitler
Bân-lâm-gú: Adolf Hitler
Basa Banyumasan: Adolf Hitler
башҡортса: Адольф Гитлер
беларуская: Адольф Гітлер
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Адольф Гітлер
भोजपुरी: एडोल्फ हिटलर
Bikol Central: Adolf Hitler
Bislama: Adolf Hitler
български: Адолф Хитлер
Boarisch: Adolf Hitler
bosanski: Adolf Hitler
brezhoneg: Adolf Hitler
català: Adolf Hitler
Cebuano: Adolf Hitler
čeština: Adolf Hitler
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Adolf Hitler
Chi-Chewa: Adolf Hitler
chiShona: Adolf Hitler
Cymraeg: Adolf Hitler
Deutsch: Adolf Hitler
Diné bizaad: Dágháilchįįh
Ελληνικά: Αδόλφος Χίτλερ
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Adolf Hitler
español: Adolf Hitler
Esperanto: Adolf Hitler
estremeñu: Adolf Hitler
euskara: Adolf Hitler
Fiji Hindi: Adolf Hitler
føroyskt: Adolf Hitler
français: Adolf Hitler
furlan: Adolf Hitler
Gaeilge: Adolf Hitler
Gàidhlig: Adolf Hitler
galego: Adolf Hitler
贛語: 希特勒
ગુજરાતી: એડોલ્ફ હિટલર
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Adolf Hitler
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Adolf Hitler
Hausa: Hitler
հայերեն: Ադոլֆ Հիտլեր
hornjoserbsce: Adolf Hitler
hrvatski: Adolf Hitler
Ilokano: Adolf Hitler
Bahasa Indonesia: Adolf Hitler
interlingua: Adolf Hitler
Interlingue: Adolf Hitler
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐦᐄᑦᓖᕐ
íslenska: Adolf Hitler
italiano: Adolf Hitler
Basa Jawa: Adolf Hitler
Kabɩyɛ: Adolph Hitler
kernowek: Adolf Hitler
Kiswahili: Adolf Hitler
Kreyòl ayisyen: Adolf Hitler
kurdî: Adolf Hitler
Кыргызча: Адольф Гитлер
Ladino: Adolf Hitler
لۊری شومالی: آدولف ھيتلر
latgaļu: Adoļfs Hitlers
latviešu: Ādolfs Hitlers
Lëtzebuergesch: Adolf Hitler
lietuvių: Adolfas Hitleris
Limburgs: Adolf Hitler
Lingua Franca Nova: Adolf Hitler
Livvinkarjala: Adolf Hitler
la .lojban.: .adolf. .itlyr.
Luganda: Adolf Hitler
lumbaart: Adolf Hitler
magyar: Adolf Hitler
македонски: Адолф Хитлер
Malagasy: Adolf Hitler
მარგალური: ადოლფ ჰიტლერი
مازِرونی: آدولف هیتلر
Bahasa Melayu: Adolf Hitler
Baso Minangkabau: Adolf Hitler
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Adolf Hitler
Mirandés: Adolf Hitler
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဟစ်တလာ
Nāhuatl: Adolf Hitler
Dorerin Naoero: Adolf Hitler
Nederlands: Adolf Hitler
Nedersaksies: Adolf Hitler
नेपाल भाषा: एडोल्फ हिटलर
Napulitano: Adolf Hitler
Nordfriisk: Adolf Hitler
Norfuk / Pitkern: Adolf Hitler
norsk nynorsk: Adolf Hitler
Novial: Adolf Hitler
occitan: Adolf Hitler
олык марий: Гитлер, Адольф
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Adolf Hitler
پنجابی: ہٹلر
Papiamentu: Adolf Hitler
Patois: Adalf Itla
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អាដុល ហ៊ីត្លែរ
Piemontèis: Adolf Hitler
Plattdüütsch: Adolf Hitler
polski: Adolf Hitler
português: Adolf Hitler
Qaraqalpaqsha: Adolf Hitler
Ripoarisch: Adolf Hitler
română: Adolf Hitler
rumantsch: Adolf Hitler
Runa Simi: Adolf Hitler
русиньскый: Адолф Гітлер
саха тыла: Адольф Хитлер
संस्कृतम्: ऐडॉल्फ् हिटलर्
Seeltersk: Adolf Hitler
Sesotho: Adolf Hitler
sicilianu: Adolf Hitler
Simple English: Adolf Hitler
سنڌي: هٽلر
slovenčina: Adolf Hitler
slovenščina: Adolf Hitler
ślůnski: Adolf Hitler
Soomaaliga: Adolf Hitler
српски / srpski: Адолф Хитлер
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Adolf Hitler
Basa Sunda: Adolf Hitler
svenska: Adolf Hitler
Tagalog: Adolf Hitler
தமிழ்: இட்லர்
Taqbaylit: Adolf Hitler
татарча/tatarça: Адольф Һитлер
Türkçe: Adolf Hitler
українська: Адольф Гітлер
اردو: ہٹلر
vèneto: Adolf Hitler
vepsän kel’: Gitler Adol'f
Tiếng Việt: Adolf Hitler
Volapük: Adolf Hitler
文言: 希特勒
West-Vlams: Adolf Hitler
Winaray: Adolf Hitler
Yorùbá: Adolf Hitler
粵語: 希特拉
Zazaki: Adolf Hitler
Zeêuws: Adolf Hitler
žemaitėška: Aduolfos Hitleris